Parent Category: Внутренний туризм
Published on Monday, 13 September 2010 06:09
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Floristic regions of South Kazakhstan

 

Shymkent region - the southernmost region of Kazakhstan. From north to south - 620 km., From west to east - 520 km. Two mountains border the region Tau - 440 km. Karzhantausky range of Western Tien Shan. The longest river - the Syr Darya - 2137 km - starts in Kyrgyzstan flows into the Aral Sea. Its tributaries - the river Keles - 236 km, Aris - 339 km. Aris takes an Ak - Su 122 km, the river Mashat - 62 km, the river Badam - 137 km. There are: Chardarin Reservoir - 5.6 billion cubic meters. meters of water, Bugunskoe Reservoir - 375 million cubic meters. meters of water, reservoir Badam - 2 million cubic meters. meters of water.

The climate in the northern part of the region closer to the Siberian. South - closer to the Mediterranean. Sand Desert heated to 70 degrees. In winter, there are windows of spring. 290 frost-free days.

Soil: since 1908 he studied the local soil Neustroev professor in 1934 - Shishkin, Linchevskiy, Korovin. There were light-gray soils 4, 5% humus, dark - 3% humus.

These scientists have divided the area into six floristic regions:

Betpakdala

Muyunkumsky

Kzylkum

Karatausky

Tien Shan

Turkestan.

Total in Shymkent region grow 3000 species of flowering plants. 1,306 species of them in Aksu - Dzhabagly reserve. 150 species - endemic species that grow only in the Shymkent region. Among them are the famous tsitvarnaya wormwood.

The diversity of species composition due to a variety of environmental factors.

Pioneer, the first local historian - a botanist was at one time NA Severtsev (relative Semenov-Tien Shan). Arrived in our region in 1857. Kokand authorities he seemed suspicious: a straw hat with a butterfly net for catching butterflies, and put him into the dungeon, where he was rescued by Gen. perovskite (a relative of the king), who was then the commander of the fort perovskite (now Kyzyl-Orda). 700 plant species collected and identified Severtsev made 12 thousand stuffed birds.

In 1886, after the accession of the region to the Russian Empire, came here a military doctor Albert Regel. He collected about 100 thousand herbarium insects, plants, stuffed birds and animals.

In 1914, Professor Kultasov studied stocks tausagyza (resin). In the postwar years, Korovin and Pavlov studied the flora and fauna of Kazakhstan, including Shymkent. Edited by Pavlov came a nine work "Flora of Kazakhstan."

Betpakdala floristic area.

The reeds on the river Chu was driven Turkestan tiger, the latter killed in 1945 in the Syr Darya riparian forests. Clay desert. Basically grow wormwood (200 species). Endemic floral wormwood (betege viviparous), monument of the bulbous - everywhere creates a green background, sedge desert, Sophora, acacia. Stretches cattle, antelopes and gazelles.

Muyunkumsky floristic area.

Chew up from the lower reaches of the Tau - dunes, shifting sands. 350 meters above sea level. Saxaul, Ching silver, peskodrev (silver wattle), horsetail ephedra, rye sand, timothy. Eriantus - herb from India. Sophora, sferofiza. The valley of the river Chu tugai.

Kzylkum floristic area.

The western reaches of the river Syr - Darya, shifting sands, dunes, peskodrev, saksaul black and white, ephemera - of monuments, anabasis (um sichek), wormwood different, Echinops belostebelny (endemic), dry hay on the vine.

Turkestan floristic area.

Semi-desert area. Grow: tsitvarnaya wormwood, psoralen kostyankovaya - honey plant (aa Kurai) anabasis leafless - it is harvested for the needs of chemical - pharmaceutical. Plant. Anabasine sulfate, anabazodust exported to 60 countries for sale. Sophora foxtail from legumes - quarantine weed. Tamarisk (Kazakh zhytsgyl) - tamarisk - very beautiful shrub with purple flowers metelkovidnymi.

Syrdarya floristic area.

Here there are: Syrdarya poplar - Asiatic 5-6 meters high, goof Silver (jida), sea buckthorn, Ching silver, tamarisk, reeds, narrow-leaved cattail, Typha latifolia, Susak umbrella,

water pepper. Liana - clematis east. Pheasants, wild boars, jackals. Tigers and Bukhara deer, hangul was in the eighteenth century.

Karatausky floristic area.

It grows two thousand species of flowering plants. There was Tethys Ocean during the Paleolithic period. Tau ridge was an island of the ocean. Evolution was a distinctive way, so there are many endemic species. The Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, Balkhash - the remnants of the Tethys Ocean. In the gorge there Boraldayskom prints of marine fish, there are deposits of white quartz sand and shark teeth in them.

West - Tien Shan floristic area.

Crocus - crocus Alatau of the iris family, it incorrectly called snowdrops, vesennik dlinnonozhkovy of the buttercup (ephemeral) rinopetrium - poisonous plant of the lily family, anemone Chereshkovaya - also poison 5 petals as the stars on a background specimen of. Goose onions cannula, Corydalis Severtsev, sifium (iris Kolpakovsky), horsetail ephedra - the raw material for the chemical-pharmaceutical plant. St. John's wort, white sucker, sweet clover, everlasting, yarrow, tansy. Lucerne blue - the birthplace of the Tien Shan - up to 18 meters root system. Red clover, white clover, hybrid, rank grassland. Burning Bush (fraxinella) - pink with blue-veined flowers, blooms in June - the strongest skin poison. Talas Juniper - Juniperus - fixer mountain soil. Maple Semenov, weather feed, astragalus Severtsev, clary. Salvia officinalis, lobed nightshade (village Frunze about Karabulak - the raw material for the chemical-pharmaceutical plant). Shiyash, Ceres - efemerus Regel - on the left bank of Badam. Lomonosovidny kadanopsis or tyangshen - a substitute for ginseng, radiogram Zerafshan, aconite - rotundifolia, Talas. Rosehip Beggera, Mabuza, large nard. Here is a partial list of medicines, feed, poisonous, ornamental flowering plants characteristic of the Tien Shan floristic region. Crown jewel of this area is a nature reserve Aksu-Dzhabagly.

Tien - Shan! "Heavenly Mountains", the great mountain country, stretching for hundreds of kilometers from east to west, from China to the southern regions of Kazakhstan. How many unusual and unknown pose more of these mountains, how many secrets of nature still waiting for a decision in their deep shady canyons, in the vast mountain meadows and harsh gray tops. Aksu - Dzhabagly only a tiny portion of this mountainous country, but the site unique and unrepeatable. In all its glory can be found here Nature of Western Tien - Shan. At altitudes of 1,000 to 4,000 meters above sea level, located deep rocky, almost inaccessible, gorges and picturesque conglomerate ledges, soft smooth terraced meadows and steppes. Here we have the basic grouping landscape of the Western Tien-Shan: dry steppe foothills give way to a belt of tall juniper forests, interspersed with luxurious upland areas of fescue grasslands and steppes. Located above the oil shale zone of juniper, which goes into alpine meadows and rocky crests of ridges crowned with eternal snow fields and the sources of rivers kind of "hanging" glaciers.

For more than eight decades, the nature reserve attracts scientists - biologists, geologists, and also many tourists and all those who love the nature of his native land.

After adjustment territory acquired by private individuals. They built cottages, saunas, created the conditions for the rest of the civilized. These people are trying not to spoil the ecology of this corner, in the village of Jabagly based on the old museum built a new modern museum with many departments, where fully represented the flora and fauna of the reserve.

The reserve was established in 1922 at the suggestion of Professor Tashkent University Brodsky. Place examined MG Popov, EP Korovin, NA Dima, DN Koshkarov.

In 1926, the Council of People's Commissars of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic adopted a resolution on the establishment of the State Reserve "Aksu - Dzhabagly." Initially, the reserve area was 30 thousand hectares, and in 1948 became the 48 thousand hectares. It occupies the northwestern part of the Talas Range, part of the Ugam Range. Management of the reserve was in the village of Novonikolaevka, now aul Jabagly.

The highest point Zhabaglytau - 2915 meters, Tau -4025 meters, Bugylyturtau - 3926 meters, Ugam - 4072 meters. Aksu river canyon 30 km long with a depth of 500 meters. River Canyon Baldabrek depth of 100 meters, a width of 8.6 meters. The largest glacier is located in the circus of the Aksu River, the size - 1600 x 350 meters. Hanging glaciers form beautiful ice falls. Reserve sharply continental climate. Vegetative soil cover has a vertically-waist structure. On top of the ridge, in the kingdom of snow and rock, soil formation are absent. Below, in the alpine zone (3000 - 4000 meters) soil cover is thin. In the subalpine zone (2000 - 3000 meters) - subalpine dark soil. In the forest-meadow zone (1200 -2000 meters) - serokorichnevye soil. There is a tendency for a gradual bleaching of soil.

On the territory of the reserve there are:

80 species of mosses

60 species of lichens

1200 species of higher plants, of which:

16 species of trees

62 species of shrubs.

Many plants are known as forage, fruit, medicine, engineering, essential oil, fine. Wild alfalfa Tien Shan; oxytrope - Talas, Lehmann, aulieatinsky; Fenugreek - Pamir, Tien Shan, foxtail - meadow, Zhungarsky; fescue-grooved, Krylova, Kirilov, orchard grass, etc.

Apple Sievers, magalebskaya cherry, oblong barberry, currant Mayer, sea buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica, low-growing shrubs - Tien Shan cherry, almond Petunnikoff, Caracas (ironwood), cotoneaster. Dosage: Altai hawthorn, wild rose and Beggera Mabuza, large nard, matted larkspur, pierced by St. John's wort, horsetail ephedra. In folk medicine used-rotundifolia and Talas aconite, melkotsvetkovaya oregano, mint Asian, sandy cumin (Helichrysum), shadow orchids. Valuable substitutes expensive raw materials - water pepper, replacing imported gidrostatis; amphibious Grechishnikov to replace kasaparil; big nard, replacing Senegal; lomonosovidny kadanopsis, substitute ginseng.

Technical plants rhubarb Maksimovic, and two kinds of Grechishnikov - Bukhara and ram tannic, Turkestan soap root, licorice.

The producers of essential oils: the Burning Bush, Scaliger, prangos stern, ferula tonkorassechenaya, cumin, various zmeegolovnika. Two types of zizifory-Bunge and klenopodobnaya.

Decorative: bright red tulip Greig, kremovozhelty Kaufman Alatausky crocus (saffron), elegant fioletovosiny iksiolirion, yarkooranzhevaya globe-Altai, large white anemone belorozovaya morin Kokand, larkspur, primroses, forget-me.

Pestrofily: bells and Albert Severtsev, lzhevodosbory, untainted skullcap, saxifrage Alberta.

Arch of three types: Zerafshan, hemispherical, Turkestan.

On clusters of debris at the base of the cliffs are common: Tien Shan sorrel, Turkestan Burning Bush, Tien Shan valerian.

Animal world.

There are species that are characteristic of different landscapes of Europe, North Africa, the Near East and Central Asia:

1. 238 species of birds

2. 42 mammals

3. reptiles 9

4. amphibians 2

5. Fish 2

Ungulates: argali, ibex, roe deer, red deer, wild boar.

Carnivores: snow leopard, spotted cat, marten, ermine, fox, badger, red wolf.

Rodents: long-tailed marmot marmot marmot.

Birds: snowcocks, partridges. Gray partridge, quail, pigeons - and dove vahir large and ordinary turtle. Thrushes - black and purple (blue bird).

Special animal: Tien Shan white-bear - live in dense thickets of creeping juniper. He is a vegetarian, feeding on roots, nuts and berries. Fawn.

 

Ladies and gentlemen, Season Travel Kz company organizes a trip to the South Kazakhstan region with visits to ancient cities such as Turkestan and Sairam, Sauran, Otrar and introduce you to the historical and architectural monuments of the Great Silk Road.

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