Parent Category: Въездной туризм
Published on Wednesday, 04 September 2013 09:52
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FLORA

 

By the nature of the flora area of Aksu -Dzhabagly as the whole of Western Tien -Shan District, is a typical plot of the southern mountains of Central Asia. According to the latest botanical and geographical regionalization reserve is part of the two subdistricts - Mashatsko -Talas ( Dzhabagly Aksu district) and Chirchiksky - Chatkalsky ( Badam - Keles district) , the boundary between which runs along the Aksu River . These sub-districts are different characteristics of altitudinal zones - the first property prichuysko - Talas type , the second - a special Western Tien Shan .

This area is characterized by dominance in the lower zones of sagebrush and ephemeral- ephemeral- ephemeroid desert communities in the mid - Turan grass- forb steppes and large umbrella juniper woodlands in the highland - subalpine and alpine meadows, thorny and turf steppes.

At the reserve marked representatives of almost all types of the vegetable kingdom - from the lowest to the higher plants. The most numerous of the lower fungi. Most people believe that in this area only few species of fungi. However, this is not true - there are no less than two hundred , class 5 and higher and lower fungi .

Of lower fungi were about ten kinds - mainly fungi genus mukor , harmful , parasitic plants of the genera plazmopara , perenospora . Higher fungi are represented by all three classes - marsupials basidial and imperfect .

Ascomycetes in the nature reserve of about 30 species, of which the most common morels . The most common Smorchkova cap - with a yellowish -brown to whitish naperstkovidnoy hat high stalk. In April of this edible mushroom quite numerous in the thickets of hawthorn and apple trees . Less often and in smaller numbers across morels - the taper and this different from the previous species adherent to the leg cap .

A lot of the reserve ascomycetes - pathogens " powdery mildew ." There are highly tafrinovye causing distortion and necrosis of the leaves of the poplars and the famous purple ergot .

In earlier times, ergot , developing inflorescences in cultivated cereals , vanosila great harm , causing poisoning people alkaloids contained therein . For several centuries in Western and Central Europe, an unknown disease called " gangrene " or cramps .. evil " claimed thousands of lives. Improving farming prevented ergot contamination of crops , which is also being developed for wild cereals . The reserve is found in the low and middle belt on inflorescences piliferous wheatgrass , bromegrass , belomyatlika karatavskogo . Now ergot alkaloids , causing contraction of smooth muscle and blood vessels, are used in medicine.

Representatives of the class Basidiomycetes in the reserve , there are more than 40 species - the most common , well-known and include edible agarikovye or amanita .

Attraction of the reserve can be called white fungus steppe , which in some years to grow large quantities of dry gravelly slopes of the low mountains to the bottom of the sub-alpine zone ( 2300 meters above sea level) . This fungus is closely associated with thickets of large umbrella . Fruiting bodies usually grow on dead roots and prangosa ferrule , which he considered to be a parasite . White fungus steppe distributed only in the southern regions of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, appears in the early - mid April in the upper zones - in May and develops within two to three weeks.

Hat this fungus is white, dense , slightly convex at first , then becomes a funnel and can reach 25 centimeters in diameter. Plate layer yellowish-white , slightly upstream of a thick , very tight leg is attached often not in the center , and in the side of the cap . Mushroom excellent flavor with a pleasant aroma and sweet flesh , is very popular in Southern Kazakhstan.

In early spring the fungus appears sinyavka or blue stem, from the family of ryadovkovyh . Meets on the meadow and steppe areas with soft soil and forms a band sometimes , circles or rows , hence the name - ryadovka . The taste reminds sinyavka mushroom .

Common mushroom is often found in the reserve , and in years with warm and wet autumn is celebrated abundant second crop of mushrooms.

On the steppe areas in the foothills of the tract Topshak and Aksai sometimes you can see a table with the convex mushroom hat, cracks in the deep, truncated pyramidal cell. This species is rare in Kazakhstan and is listed in the Red Book of the Republic.

Common estimates of location for the park meadow , and in the valley of the river birch Maydantal in July found russules .

On trunks and stumps of trees and large shrubs develop bracket fungus with gray kopytovidnoy forms perennial fruit bodies - representatives of the poliporus and large, fused from multiple blades tinder oatmeal , annual fruiting bodies which are yellow or yellowish- red color. It grows commonly in the summer on the willows . This species can be eaten as a whole bracket fungus - timber .

An interesting group gasteromycetes - mushroom fruiting bodies are completely closed until the spores mature . Aksu -Dzhabagly marked 8 such species. All of them - soil saprophytes grow on the open steppe , less - meadow areas . This Golovachi - purple and vesicular , with large fruit bodies of up to 16 centimeters in diameter , a raincoat and porhovki field with ball-shaped , smaller fruit bodies , white and edible when young , and after maturing - lots of dusty brown spores.

Original form are species of the genus geastrum , mature fruiting bodies which are divided into wedge-shaped blade , which is why they are called earth stars.

By Basidiomycetes are two more groups of extremely malicious smut and rust fungi . Several dozen species of them are found in the reserve , affecting mainly grasses and other plants .

The most represented in the reserve grade of imperfect fungi . This is mainly parasitic fungi that cause diseases of forage plants - grasses , trees and shrubs , often hitting the leaves .

By imperfect fungi are well-known representatives of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus . This group of fungi - a source of therapeutic antibiotics (such as penicillin ) is used in the manufacture of some varieties of cheese.

Much in the Aksu- Dzhabagly and lichens - these plant organisms have not been studied , although some species have been described as early BC father of botany Theophrastus . For two millennia, lichens are not found in the system of the plant kingdom , including their then mosses , algae that , in general , " the chaos of nature." Only by the end of the last century, when found that lichens - a product of a kind of symbiosis of two different organisms - fungi and algae , everything fell into place.

Aksu -Dzhabagly recorded 58 species of lichens , some of them live on the rocks , others - on the bark of trees and shrubs , and others - in the soil. Rock types is firmly fused to the substrate. In the highlands common ohrolehiya tartaric and letsideya soredioznaya bluish and greyish color , bright orange kaloplaka elegant . On the bark of trees are epiphytes - letsideya warty , tsetrariya juniper , pertuzariya bitter , on wet rocks near the water - kollema blackish , etc.

Lichens - the pioneers of the free spaces . Settling on the rocks, they are using special substances destroy the solid substrate and contribute to the formation of soils. Lichens are used in medicine, cosmetics, as feed, as dyes . Separate groups of lichens are very sensitive to air pollution , so they can serve as indicators of the quality of the environment. Already developed and used mathematical formulas to determine the extent of contamination on the basis of the presence or absence of specific lichen communities.

Among the higher plants are the most isolated group of bryophytes . Most often referred to as short- term - mosses , referring to the representatives of the most extensive and diverse class Musci .

Moss in Aksu Dzhabagly has little more than -61 lichen species. Characterized by weak expression of SOIL and epiphytic species, but widespread lithophytic ( living on the rocks ) , water and bog communities .

On the rocks grow primarily Grimm species , forming dense mats and pads , as well as tortula that in the juniper - meadow- steppe zone of cover rocks powerful pillows. On the banks of rivers and streams, near springs in all high-altitude zones expand, occupying large areas , mniobry Wallenberg and Brij swollen . In water, the most common yellowish -green tufts kratoneurov - changeable and paporotnikovovidnogo and filonotisa key . On the basis of the stones often found brahitetsy holmovoj and under bushes creeping juniper - sherohovatonozhkovy and hypno wrapped .

Very rich and diverse flora of vascular plants of the reserve . In its territory , including the immediate surroundings , has registered about 1,500 species, representing almost a quarter of the floristic diversity of Kazakhstan.

The ratio of the leading families of the Central Asian region is typical for two - thirds of species represented in 10 families , and a third just three : Asteraceae , legumes, cereals. The largest in terms of confinement , Astragalus, Oxytropis , cousin, onions, sedge, melkolepestnik , veronica , bloodroot , goose onions.

Widespread horsetail ephedra , bulbous barley , grasses , Eremurus , ferrule . Usually there brome , Kentucky bluegrass , orchard grass , goldenrod , and migrants Holarctic flora - chetyrehcheshuynaya cloves , rue izopirovidny , magalebka , gentian Oliveira et al Solitary are cosmopolitans - cane, nettle .

Typical of junipers ( Juniperus ) - Zeravshansky , semi spherical, Turkestan , honeysuckle - monetolistnaya , Tien Shan , hips Mabuza ferula tonkorassechennaya , prangos stern , hunters - gritty, elongated letter of deciduous , bulbous and bulbotuberiferous ephemeroides - tulips , crow's bows, Corydalis Ledebour , leontitsa Alberta. They are spread all over the place on the reserve.

Aksu -Dzhabagly occurs more than three hundred species of rare plants , about half of them are endemic. Zapadnotalasskih narrow endemics just over 20 ( wild rye flexible neuroloma Maydontol , eremogone Talas , burnet coastal , oxytrope turfy , zhabritsa setigerous , Schrenk Kultiasova , Pedicularis Masalsky , zmeegolovnika Pavlova, fan-shaped skullcap and Linchevsky , catnip beautiful, figwort Noorani , figwort Talas , primrose zhelezistochashechny , groundsel Noorani , buzulnik Talas , lettuce amazing , cousin - Tien -Shan , chepsayskaya , rough) . About the same number of endemic plants of a broader range - common in the Talas Alatau and the western part of the Kyrgyz range or in the spur of the southern ranges of the Western Tien - Shan oxytrope Talas , primrose Minkvits , grains Arsenyev , astragalus Abolina , Ugham town of Angren , klinolopastnik Kultiasova etc.

Relict species in the reserve of more than 30 . In need of special protection , and further study is Karelin willow , hackberry Caucasian , mountaineer tannic , maple Semenova, mediaziya , tsilindroplodnik Severtsova , trihantemis reed , trahelyantus Korol'kova , as well as species with ranges torn between Kopetdagh to the Western Tien Shan - Cousineau karatavskaya , sainfoin big iberiechka trehzhilchataya .

On the territory of Aksu Dzhabagly grows 30 kinds of plants listed in the Red Data Book of the USSR and the Kazakh SSR - Radiant lady's hair , juniper Zeravshansky , crocus yellow onion Pskem , tulips and Greig Kaufman ungernia Severtsova , iridodiktium Kolpakovsky , juno blue, rafidofiton Regel , allohruza kachimovidnaya , a fighter Talas , euonymus Koopman , currants Yancheuski , oxytrope - karatavsky , Talas , Ugam , lzhepustynnokolosnik Severtsova , morin Kokand , Ugham town of Angren , cornflower Turkestan , lettuce amazing .

The reserve is rich in medicinal plants. Various medicinal properties have more than 200 species. There are herbs for heart , nerve and gastric diseases , regulate metabolism and blood pressure, stimulating the appetite and stimulate the vitality of the body . This horsetail ephedra , St. John's wort , yarrow, marjoram, nard macrophylla , sea buckthorn , and other widely used in folk medicine , Codonopsis klematisovidny , anafaliskistenosny , ferrule , Korol'kova Severtsova , a fighter rotundifolia , crocus yellow, Bieberstein , eminium Regel , zizifory , sage nutmeg , etc.

Aksu -Dzhabagly many ornamental plants that can be used for greening cities and towns. It is drought-resistant , undemanding to soil the trees and bushes - hawthorn, wild rose , honeysuckle (especially Karelin and bristly ) , all kinds of juniper , meadowsweet hairy , Atraphaxis grushelistnaya , almonds Petunnikoff . The most promising early-flowering - tulips ( Greig , Kaufman , changeable , lozhnodvuhtsvetkovy ) , saffron Alatau , Juno - blue and orchids , desert-candle can l part- flowering , iksiolirion . Of the more recent types are very decorative globe- Altai , anemone elongated , larkspur - matted and poluborodataya gorolyubivaya , a fighter Talas , morin Kokand , kopeechnik Severtsova , cornflower Turkestan . For the growth of the alpine slides dhabagly > promising bows - karatavsky , gorolyubivy , alpine aster , kopeechnik capitated , zmeegolovnika - Komarova , beardless , skullcap untainted , rozetochnitsy , feverfew, Waldheim , astragalus Ashutura , grains Arsenyev vzdutohohlatka Severtsova etc.

Diverse plants, which are the technical application . This tanning ( revenMaksimovicha , Grechishnikov - tanning , Hissar , Alpine ) , essential oil ( zmeegolovnika , ferrule , catnip , sage , prangos stern , mediaziya macrophylla ) , dyeing ( Arnebia Ugamsky and ink , hunters , larkspur ) saponinonosnye ( allohruza kachimovidnaya ) krahmalonosnye and kleydayuschie ( Eremurus , Korol'kova Severtsova ) , rubber ( euphorbias , euonymus - Koopman , Semenov ), etc.

In the flora of Aksu Dzhabagly plants are different fenoritmotipov - ephemeral , korotkovegetiruyuschie and long - vegetating . Among the first group is dominated by early spring ephemeroides characterized by a short period of above-ground vegetation , the period of summer dormancy , early resumption of the formation of kidney - the end of winter they are already fully formed reproductive organs , and the above-ground vegetation begins immediately after snowmelt . Typical representatives of this group - yellow crocus , saffron Alatau , vesennik . There are species with a longer growing season to bloom for 2-3 weeks, and then a month later - Korol'kova , tulip Greig , desert-candle supposedly part- flowering .

Significant, particularly in the lower and middle zones , the role of annuals , ephemera - rogoglavnika pryamorogogo , Burachkov , Thlaspi pierced , Veronica .

Among korotkovegetiruyuschih there are species of flowering late summer , vegetating from early summer to autumn - annuals ( leptorabdos melkotsvetny , Eyebright , Gentian bearded ) and perennial, vegetating from spring to mid-summer - ferula tonkorassechennaya and Samarkand , bell-shaped chamber . A special type of seasonal development of different ungernia Severtsova having two of the growing season ( early spring stage of leaves and late summer ) , separated by a summer dormancy period .

The most numerous and diverse group of long - growing plants . Among them are evergreen - all kinds of juniper , euonymus Koopman , Pyrola rotundifolia . Keep the green shoots in the summer and in the winter some prairie grasses ( fescue grasses ) , Geum urban pryamohvostnik Kokand .

Most dlitelnovegetiruyuschih plants, including deciduous trees and shrubs, keep the period of winter dormancy . Among them there are species with both early-summer ( larkspur matted , letter leafy, veronica fake ) and a late summer flowering period - teasel azure , solonechniki , aster graying .

For many plants under the snow area is characterized by the development , it is observed in Korol'kova Severtsova , crocus yellow Corydalis Ledebour , leontitsy Alberta, buttercup krasnochashechnogo , hegemonic purple . In the lower and middle zones , many annuals grow into " winter " - rogoglavnik , dead-nettle amplexicaul, Persian speedwell , alfalfa small lentoostnik .

Among the various environmental factors that have an impact on the vegetation of the reserve is most clearly expressed by climate and soil . Describing the environmental groups in relation to the moisture conditions of the habitat , it should be emphasized poverty district inhabitants of aquatic and semi-aquatic spaces present hygrophytes ( water buttercup , Grechishnikov amphibious ) and hydrophytes ( cane, veronica key and threading ) .

Dry conditions in the area contributed to the development of different forms of devices to reduce transpiration and reduce heat gain : the reduction of the leaf blade ( ephedra ), folding the leaves along the ( fescue grasses ), the development of dense pubescence ( Trichodesma gray , pustynnokolosnik Tien Shan , cinquefoil entirely white). Another type of device to endure drought - enrichment plant mucus -binding portion of the water ( Eremurus ) , the storage of water in the leaves - succulents ( rozetochnitsy , sedum Alberta ) .

Due to the special climatic conditions conducive to intensive processes of weathering and destruction of rocks , creating a distinctive environment for vegetation , very typical for the reserve species that grow on rocks and scree . An example of plants that live exclusively on the rocks, are in the first place already mentioned scale lichens and some mosses. From higher plants solely on the rocks settle molochnotsvetkovyi columbine , bell Alberta, astragalus Abolina , Sergey Severtsova , skullcap untainted , pellitory Serbian . Often there are other plants - Zerafshan juniper , horsetail ephedra , the Persian sage , ventsovnik Olga , which can grow in other environments.

The distribution of species is related to the composition of the rocks that serve as material for the formation of talus . Thus, for the typical conglomerate talus Pskem onions, mediaziya , zhabritsa bordered to the limestone - bow karatavsky , kolosnyak flexible, Schrenk overcrowding , for sandstone - Rush Skeletonweed , lettuce and eastern shale - vzdutohohlatka Mabuza , veronica Litke .

The diversity of natural conditions on the reserve not only determines the richness and svoebrazie set of plant species , but also bursting of vegetation types , of which there are 12 : arid ( ephemeral plants) subarid (mountain steppes, savannoidy , highland xerophytes , Shibliak ) , humid ( juniper , mountain deciduous forests and bushes , meadows and marshes ) , subnival ( alpine meadows carpet , upland kriofity ) petrophytic (vegetation of rocks and scree vegetation ), etc.

Ephemeral vegetation common in the foothills and low on the reserve there are only a few areas . Its composition is dominated ephemeroides - tolstostolbikovaya sedge , meadow grass , nogtelepestnik , tulip lozhnodvuhtsvetkovy , vesennik and ephemera - types of fires Burachkov , lentoostnik . Are quite plentiful as dlitelnovegetiruyuschie perennials - zopnika purple loosestrife , tarragon later , cousin Minkvits and small-fruited . Shrubs, which are characteristic of low-growing wild rose and Kokand gulteymiya Persian .

Barrens Preserve presented several options. This is primarily subarid ( warm ) , common in the lower zones of the mountains ( 1200-2300 m) and cold - alpine ( 2400-3400 m) . The main edificators are fescue - valeziysky and Alai , at least - ovsets Shelley . The poorest in species composition and low-altitude alpine steppe , the richest - subalpine steppe zone. In the cover of sub-arid steppes dominated tansy turlanskaya , Schrenk Golikovsky , sometimes feather grass - Stipa and Lessing , common cinquefoil East , gentian Olivier bindweed linearly l istny . In various embodiments, the high steppes dominated oxytrope - Talas and aulieatinsky , ovsets Shelley yaskolka trehstolbikovaya , forget-me-not pleasant , bluegrass Alberta, plantain arachnoid , cinquefoil entirely white .

By the steppe type is the type of savannoidov . This is a community dominated by wheat grass and barley piliferous bulbous . The most characteristic reserve couch grass couch grass and forb- community , common at elevations of 1,300 meters above sea level. Their composition is dominated by tall marshmallow golotsvetkovy , nard macrophylla , ferula karatavskaya , astragalus Sievers , desert-candle Regel . Also common hunters - gritty and elongated duschitsa melkotsvetkovaya , iris and other Sogdian

Similar to the rhythm of development and species composition of communities dominated by bulbous barley , occupying a smaller area of the reserve . They made up a significant role shrubs - honeysuckle, wild roses , barberry , tree of common juniper Zerafshan .

It is extremely typical for the reserve -dominated communities krupnotravnyh umbrella - feruly tonkorassechennoy and prangosa feed . Ferulniki occur mainly on the steep and rocky south , at least Western , slopes , rocky bottoms and lower terraces of dry valleys and gorges. They formed part of the other ferrule - Samarkand and peristonervnaya , cereals - meadow grass , wheat grass piliferous , bulbous barley , abundant tulip Greig , Schrenk Golikovsky , zopnika korotkopritsvetnikovy , frequent rhubarb Maksimovic , everlasting Samarkand , mullein dzhungar . Of honeysuckle shrubs dominated by the Tien Shan , hips Kokand , Atraphaxis grushelistnaya Petunnikoff and almonds , are also characteristic of juniper trees zeravshan . The vegetation of the ferrule tonkorassechennoy very common in thermophilic juniper southern part of the reserve , especially in Chuuldak tract .

Communities dominated by prangosa fodder ( most mesophilic option savannoids ) are confined mainly to the steep fine-textured , sometimes rocky , and even rocky slopes of the eastern and northern exposure , often climbing up to the crest of a ridge , where in wet corridors between high cliffs form a thicket .

Diverse composition of communities with prangosa - in the reserve there are over 240 species . The most characteristic bedstraw pamiroalaysky , ferula tonkorassechennaya , hunters , zizifora , orchard grass , duschitsa and out of the bushes - rose hip Mabuza , honeysuckle Tien Shan , cherry krasnoplodnaya . Often found juniper hemispherical .

Xerophyte ( frigana ) in a nature reserve with small areas at elevations of 2200-3000 m above sea level on a dry gravelly , open to the sun parts of the slopes. Edificator them is a prickly shrub cushion cockshead - echidna .

Flora xerophyte Aksu Dzhabagly has about 70 species , 20 of which are Endemic to Central Asia. Characterized podushechniki - Acantholimon Alberta, oxytrope volosistochashechny , mordovnikchimgansky , cousin Soddy , and prairie grasses - fescue grasses , bluegrass Alberta. Often found creeping juniper .

Shibliak , xerophylous thickets of trees and shrubs in the Aksu- Dzhabagly occupies a very small space. On its territory there are virtually no pistachio and hawthorn Pontian , good crops which are preserved in the lower mountains - Boroldaytau and Daubaba - Mashatskih . Only in the canyon of the Aksu River and the lower valley of the river Dzhabagly groves stretch the frame of the Caucasus , there are many and horsetail ephedra , almond Petunnikoff , grushelistnoy Atraphaxis , krasnoplodnoy and Tien Shan cherry.

Well represented in the reserve juniper . Boled juniper forests cover an area of about 9,000 hectares. In the northern part, they consist mainly of juniper hemispherical , the South ( Tracts Aksu, Chuuldak , Darbaza ) - zeravshan . In the undergrowth are the most common honeysuckle , Tien Shan , monetolistnaya , Karelin , small-leaf , barberry, rose hips. Peculiar sparse juniper forests on steep rocky slopes of the river valleys Ulken Kishi Aksu and Aksu. In the canyons , where the day is shorter than in the open field , trees grow in dense forest , reach 15 meters in height and feature a narrow , elevated above the ground crown.

Individual trees are usually spaced at a distance of 5-10 meters, crowns of neighboring trees are not closed due to the unusual structure of the root system of juniper . Unlike many of the roots of the trees it did not sink deeper 1-1.5 meters, and the branch in the horizontal direction, occupying the greater area than the land habitat . The root system is always several times higher than the crown. Old trees with a diameter of 4-5 m crown spread their roots in diameter and 20 meters. At the bottom of the barrel they have a huge bearing roots, resembling , paws , " which are often exposed and located on the surface of the soil.

The weak point in the biology of juniper - slow growth and poor seed regeneration . Its fruit ripens 2 years , the seeds usually germinate only after a year , and for this stratification is required for 6-7 months, and relatively high soil moisture. In addition, the percentage of surviving seedlings is negligible , since the end of the first year of life, their height is no more than 1.5-2 cm, and the root system is weak and can not provide water to the arid summer. The growth of young trees at the beginning of not more than 1 cm per year, and adults - about 6 centimeters. Therefore, even in areas not exposed to any economic use , the number of young growth on average no more than 130 copies per hectare. In heavily grazed areas and grasslands resumption of juniper is almost impossible.

Areas under the juniper , unfortunately, rapidly shrinking. You can cut it down a few strokes of the ax , and to ensure that it grew again , take centuries . Young trees trampling by cattle , are killed by hay making , a considerable number of mature trees destroyed by avalanches . And how much juniper forever carry fire ! Green gummy juniper needles burning like a torch, and put out a fire in a burning juniper , especially in windy conditions is almost impossible.

At the same time, the value of juniper is undeniable. In the mountains of Central Asia is the main tree species . All juniper plantations are forests of the first category. They have enhanced the slopes , protect from wind and water erosion , delay and accumulate moisture. The depth of the snow cover in the juniper is much larger than in open spaces. The air in the juniper forests has exceptional healing powers . Green twigs that contain large amounts of essential oils can be used for the preparation of conifer essences and balsamic dressing for wounds . Juniper wood is very beautiful and durable, the Millennium keep juniper overlap in the famous buildings of Bukhara and Samarkand.

In the upper zone of the mountains - the subalpine and alpine - widespread creeping juniper , occupying an area of over 11,000 hectares. At the lower border zone , especially on steep slopes in the upper reaches of rivers , Turkestan juniper grows high , up to 2 meters of shrubs , sometimes forming solid impenetrable thickets . With the lifting of the slopes juniper becomes stunted , stocky and above 2500 meters takes the form Shpalernaya manicured lawns no more than half a meter in height or flattened , , lepeshkovidnoy pillows . " In these bushes are up to 30 barrels of various ages , heights and diameters.

Under the cover of juniper grow upland and alpine bluegrass , azineuma sharp, goldenrod , buzulnik dzhungar , anemone elongated , cloves Gelttseraidr .

Alpine meadows occupy the reserve area of about 20,000 hectares. In the middle belt developed upland grass and forb -grass meadows . In herbage their common foxtail brome , Kentucky bluegrass , alfalfa Tien Shan , letter of hardwood , veronica fake , northern bedstraw .

Varied options of subalpine meadows, folded foxtail Dzhungarian and various herbs - Grechishnikov , Potentilla , geraniums rock . Alpine lawn occupy small areas , but are ubiquitous in humid areas, in the hollows around the snowfields . Their composition is characterized by various types of buttercups , Oxytropis , Lindelof Chimghan , alpine forget-me-not , onions , etc. Mabuza

 

In all high-altitude zones developed plant groupings of rocks and scree . Here markedly influence micro-climatic conditions , which affect the accumulation of weathering products . In addition, significant fluctuations in temperature - very hot during the day and cool at night. Therefore, many inhabitants of the rocks, for example lzhevodosbor macranthon , Alberta saxifrage have plotnokustovuyu form , keeping the stems at the base of dead leaves and petioles .

The main points that determine the uniqueness of the environmental situation in the talus are mobility , fluidity of the substrate , and various sizes of debris and the degree of hydration layers. Depending on the stage of overgrowing talus marked the various factions . At the edges , where the coarse-grained material accumulates , usually grow - barberry bushes , wild rose , honeysuckle , spirea hairy . Then settle krupnotravnye umbrella - Ferrules , mediaziya , and in hollows - grasses ( fescue, perlovniki ) . Taluses alpine shrubs do not grow here ferula Renard , Zeravshansky milkweed , larkspur gorolyubivaya , groundsel Noorani , etc.

Among the plant communities that are in need of special protection - juniper and riparian forests , particularly poplar grove Tajikistani in the canyon of the river Aksu, community featuring tulips Greig and Kaufman allohruzy kachimovidnoy , thickets Maureen Kokand , Pskem onions and onion dlinnOostogo , sea buckthorn Tugai . Lots of the latter, which are outside the reserve (river valleys Topshak and Aksai ) , as well as thickets of endemic Cousineau macrophylla , Schrenk Kultiasova , feruly belopoloschatoy and yellow onions , need to accede to the reserve. Only in this case, they will be able to keep.

Are the first heralds of spring crocus , crow bows vesennik then disclosed tulips, Juno , Eremurus , begin to bloom ferrule , anemone extended straight into the middle belt of mountains , bows - Severtsova and Fetisov. The first flowers of summer - onions Barshchevsky , St. John's , Schrenck replaced later - initial letter , larkspur tangled , Veronica unreal , bright patches of blue and blue bow , and the more humid areas of pinkish background creates fields of onions plevokornevischnogo .

Part of cereals to the middle of the summer begins to dry by August already common meadow grasses straw color , among which are blooming and yellow marshmallow golotsvetkovy " plumes " of mullein . Later disclosed flowers solonechnikov teasel and azure , in which the middle and lower zones of the flowering period ends . For hollows and along the melting snows flowering herbs preserved until the autumn.

At the end of August - beginning of September to middle mountains dominate fall colors . Purple leaf barberry sharply set off a brush of dark blue , oblong fruit , golden yellow fields of dry grass with dark green juniper woodlands resemble vivid pictures of African savannah. Dry warm Indian summer days give way to the September October rain and sometimes snow. Overfly the golden leaves of birches and poplars , scarlet - apple and barberry , only under the cover of juniper trees leaves turn yellow honeysuckles , and on the banks of the rivers pestreyut green and yellow leaves of willow .

The diversity of vegetation not only markedly seasonal . In some years there is activity of certain types of becoming background in the community , in other years , on the contrary , reduced their numbers . This is typical especially for bulbs and bulbotuberiferous ephemeroids .

In other years, increasing the role of rhizomatous grasses, staying mostly in the vegetative state . Fixed periods of strong hunters and flowering meadow groundsel , pharmacy sweet clover , red clover , heading feathery grasses , etc.

There are also significant fluctuations in productivity and herbage yield of fruits and seeds of tree and shrub species. In the first case by lean half years more than the second. So, for more than 30 years, only 6 were once abundant harvests of fruit and berries , and the same happened again crop failures, other years were average. On grass productivity distribution is uniform - for 9-12 years of rich , poor and middle level . About as varied and yield of mushrooms.

Trees and shrubs in the reserve are often damaged as a result of the activities of wild animals - the bear is breaking the branches of apple Sievers , wild boar damage shrubs - dog-roses , spirea , barberry . Cause much more damage avalanches, and in some years - with flash floods mudslide . In 1969, the powerful avalanches in various places eversion juniper trees , and along the riverbed Kishi Kaindy almost completely destroyed Tugai willow , which had by now recovered , as well as thickets of sea buckthorn, willow and birch trees on the river Dzhabagly almost completely destroyed by a strong spring floods 1959.

More frequently observed damage to plants caused by the deviation of the weather - the shedding of flowers and ovaries of fruit trees and shrubs as a result of late frosts , which mainly affects apple trees, frame , barberry, rose hips. Freezing, observed at the end of May, and sometimes even in early June also damage the grass plants , thereby reducing the intensity of flowering and fruiting. Severely affected by frost ferula tonkorassechennaya , Eremurus , rhubarb Maksimovic , Grechishnikov , cousin shadow , as well as rare species - trahelyantus Korol'kova , mediaziya , morin Kokand , etc. The flowers of tulip Greig sometimes strongly damaged by hail, which leads to a decrease in the intensity of flowering.

Severe summer droughts cause drying of some species letnetsvetuschih initial leafy, oregano, larkspur tangled , collecting bells and pozdneletnetsvetuschaya teasel azure sometimes dries up even in the bud stage .

Spring frosts and drought periods , alternating wet autumn, under favorable conditions, contribute to the phenomenon of secondary flowering of individual plants . For example, in 1966 the tract Kzylzhar ( 1,450 m above sea level) at the end of August marked the secondary mass flowering Hypericum pierced . Fruits are formed as a result of the flowering time to properly form and the end of October were in the process of maturing. It was noticeable increase of anomalies.

At the reserve demonstrated widespread phenomenon of discoloration Greig's tulip flowers . It is not uncommon whitening - albinism - flowers of orchids shadow , iksioliriona Tatar , onions and Barshchevsky Severtsova , wikis fine-leaved , istoda hybrid , bell collecting , etc. Note also the cases of the appearance of ugly animals. Most often, abnormal changes are flowers , at least - the leaves and stems. A significant number of anomalies observed in goose bows - a truncated , Gusyatnikova , tulips Greig , Kaufman lozhnovolosistotychinochnogo , crocus yellow larkspur tangled . Most anomalies form fantastic shapes .

Extremely important role in the preservation of the gene pool of reserve plants. Of the 249 wild species identified for the Asian Genetic Center , 80 became the basis for the breeding of crop plants .

Aksu -Dzhabagly more than 20 kinds of fruit trees and shrubs , including rare for the reserve Regel pear , almonds prickly hawthorn Pontian , currants Yancheuski , the frame and the usual Caucasian here Sievers apple , currant Meyer Petunnikoff almonds , cherries , etc magalebka . premiums in the conservation of wild relatives of forage grasses - foxtail, fescue , wheatgrass , bluegrass , alfalfa Tien Shan , wikis Kokand , rank meadow , etc.

Of food plants most promising bows . Pskem onions preserved only on the rocky slopes of the valley of the Aksu River , as in public places, he intensively harvested local population as a food and medicinal plants . A small area thickets found in the river valley Dzhabagly dlinnoosty onions , perfectly bound to the culture and became the ancestor of varieties of garlic " Chokparsky " successfully cultivated in southern Kazakhstan , the Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Extraordinarily original and decorative bow karatavsky living on scree and featuring a large spherical bulbs contain a very high percentage of vitamin C.

As a result of the research work carried out in the last decade , the reserve staff recommendations were developed to improve the protection of certain species of rare plants.

 

The authors of the text and the drafters A. Ivashchenko , A. Knistaustas .

 

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