Parent Category: Въездной туризм
Published on Tuesday, 03 September 2013 09:32
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HISTORY
BIRTH OF A RESERVE



Searing breath of the Central Asian desert Kyzyl Kum , pausing for a moment over the reed beds and riparian Syr slightly cooled down into the valley of the river rushes Aris, opening the gateway to the Heavenly Mountains - Tien-Shan . This huge mountain range in Central and Central Asia extends almost two and a half thousand kilometers and consists of a series of ridges , separable within the territory of our country to the North , Central, Inner and Western Tien Shan . The ultimate , the western branch of the latter is the Talas Alatau mountain range in the north- western spurs of which is the oldest nature reserve in Central Asia and Kazakhstan - Aksu- Dzhabagly . The history of it dates back to ancient July 1920, when the Tashkent University professor hydrobiologist AL Brodsky visited these places .

July's sultry haze enveloped the valley of the river Aris, the hot air was filled with tiny particles of loess dust. Among overgrazed pastures and burned along the route Tashkent - Almaty rarely met green oases , towns and irrigated fields . Left stretched mountains, inviting freshness of spring water and a cool shady gorges. In one of these valleys , the valley of the river Dzhabagly and was well-known scientist .

The mountains were really colorful ( "Alatau" in Kazakh language means "motley mountain " ) . The dark green juniper forest with a light, clear air , wild rivers with blue water , thundering waterfalls , quiet springs along the edges of emerald moss overgrown , tall grasslands , bordered by dense thickets of juniper thickets , bright multi-colored carpets of alpine meadows . . . Higher - almost bare scree with transitions delicate shades - from light fawn and ocher to pale ash , dark gray and black at all . Rocky peaks crowned with dazzling white caps of the eternal snows , and in the upper reaches of blue in a long glacier tongues .

The richness and diversity of plant and animal life in the upper reaches of rivers and Aksu Dzhabagly produced an unusually strong impression on the scientist, and he appealed to the Turkomstaris (Turkestan Committee for Museums and Antiquities , art and nature) with a proposal to organize a nature reserve here . In 1922-1923 , the Board sent for a detailed survey of the territory group of professors - nerds MG Popov , MV Kultiasova , EP Korovin, DN Kashkarova ecologist and soil scientist Dimo . As a result, scientists have prepared a memorandum which concluded that the area in the upper reaches of rivers and Dzhabagly Aksu has some undeniable advantages for the creation of the reserve : there are many common elements of the flora and fauna of Turkestan in a fairly bright and not disturbed by human activity terms , its beautiful landscapes , majestic and in the scientific sense instructive.

In February 1925 the decision was made : to create a reserve in the shortest possible time , and in May the start of work on the definition of its boundaries.

July 14, 1926 the Council of People's Commissars of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic adopted a resolution on the establishment of Aksu -Dzhabagly , which was approved by the People's Commissars of the RSFSR May 27, 1927 .

Director of the reserve has been appointed member of the Russian Geographic Society , Conservation enthusiast Boris Funeral Feast (1867-1937 gg.) .

A man of remarkable intelligence , well educated , slim and observant naturalist , a connoisseur of beautiful nature of southern Kazakhstan, he enjoyed great prestige among the local population , correctly understood the goals and purpose of the reserve and in the early years raised the question of the expansion of its area , part of the original 30,545 acres . Because of the small area of study were not taken into account border settlement of some valuable species such as argali , outside the reserve were the best juniper tree plantings . Offers directors were only implemented in 1935 and 1937 , when attached to the reserve were juniper river valleys and Baldabrek Bala Baldabrek , spurs Maydantal and the right slope of the valley of the river Dzhabagly , making the area a protected area increased to 69,826 hectares.

In subsequent years, the boundaries of the reserve did not change significantly and is currently an area of 75043 hectares. The reserve is located on the territory of Tyulkubas and Lenger areas Shymkent area. In addition , it has two isolated , far from the main part of the territory of paleontological site, are within the range Syrdarya Tau Algabasskom in the area of the same region . Karabastau area of 126 hectares in 1924 became the first paleontological reserve the USSR , Aulie plot area of 100 hectares has commanded succeeded only in 1973. This is one of the few places on earth where there are well-preserved remains of animals and plants that existed in the water and on the banks of an ancient lake , splash around here during the Jurassic period 140 million years ago. For the first time such findings have been found in France, in the Jura Mountains , hence the name of the period - the Jurassic . The currently known location of plants and animals Jurassic in Scotland, India, Japan, in our country - in Georgia and Tajikistan, but Karatausky burial is considered the richest and most unique.

Most organisms Jurassic period to the present time has disappeared from the face of the Earth, but in thin plates of so-called paper shales Tau formed of compacted silt fossilized long ago dried up lake , preserved their " business card " in the form of prints of leaves, twigs, cones , various conifers , benettitovyh , cycads , ferns. Only the tract Aulie found about eighty different extinct plants , and in some cases , having studied the carbonaceous film on the surface of the fingerprint , scientists have been able to penetrate even into the secret of their anatomy .

Nowhere in the world has such a rich , interesting and well-preserved burial of ancient insects , as in the Tau . For example , employees of the Paleontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR collected is unusually rich collection - more than eighteen thousand samples of the remains of insects , including over a thousand different species of beetles , Diptera , cockroaches, bedbugs , etc.

Most of the detected insect belongs to a previously unknown species, genera, families . Installed as new , higher systematic categories of animals of this type.

Quite a few in the shale deposits found fish found the remains of the flying lizards , aquatic turtles, fossilized bones of large land dinosaur.

Unique paleontological finds in the Aksu -Dzhabagly significantly replenished the treasury of world science , allowed to solve a series of puzzles , find a previously unknown link in the unbroken chain of life on Earth , to determine the nature and characteristics of climate change in the distant era.

At the core of the reserve , in the Talas Alatau, there are no less than amazing and rich clusters of fossilized animals even more ancient - clams , corals, bryozoans , who lived in the waters of the vast sea that covered the territory of modern Central Asia in the Paleozoic era more than 400 million years ago. One of these unique places of reserve staff called Coral gorge .

Left traces of their activities on the reserve and our ancestors . Dzhabagly on the left bank of the river at an altitude of 3700 meters above the sea level rises Kaskabulak top of the mountain . The harsh rocky ridge , clearly stands out against the background of an unusually clear blue sky , bordered by a huge diamond-shaped bottom snow, which is visible for dozens of miles of river valley Aris . At the foot of the picturesque pit , surrounded by a huge amphitheater of mountain ranges. The height of the pit 3,000 meters above sea level , the snow has time to melt here in the summer only . An amazing experience leaves a visit excavation in the summer. Alpine Lawn striking diversity of flowering herbs , emerald and malachite green herbs, onion blossoms delight the golden Mabuza , very juicy and sweet to the taste , dark pink elongated head Mytnikov Korol'kova , delicate blue forget-me- spot , dazzling white anemones , golden yellow cinquefoil , buttercups , lilac- purple alpine asters . Exceptionally clean air to insist on the strong scent of geranium rock - the usual alpine plants .

Going up a steep slope covered with dense wilds of Turkestan creeping juniper , you can sometimes see the Tien Shan bear, inadvertently scare the deer , hear the shrill whistle of long-tailed marmot , frozen orange bars near its burrow .

There are many wonderful birds - can be seen floating in the celestial heights bearded mountain zavirushek , pearl and Himalayan finches , large , bright juniper Grosbeak , and in the usual Himalayan snow cock pit .

But not only the great diversity of wildlife tract Kaskabulak . Throughout trench stones are flat surfaces. They are covered with a kind of desert tan - iron- manganese crust from dark brown to blue- black , black- colored , cast metal shine. These dark porphyritic rocks for several decades, attracting the attention of scientists . They are our forefathers carved images of animals, people , scenes of hunting and life .

Whimsical ligature rock painting amazing variety of subjects and techniques of performance. The most beautiful images of wild animals. On one of the stones - four clear images with high deer slender , perfectly vertical horns, branched , herringbone . " Carefully loomed a deer surrounded by an equally elegant images of dogs with long legs and a curly tail .

Rock carvings Kaskabulak served as a scholar of evidence that deer have long lived in the area. Exterminated at the end of the last century , these beautiful animals have been delivered to the reserve only in the sixties and are now successfully settled in a picturesque river valleys and Dzhabagly Kishi Aksu. An unforgettable impression on seeing these large ungulates proudly - whether females with kids or single males with strong branching antlers .

The most numerous among rock art - petroglyphs of ibex , or tau- Teke . There are also single figures , mostly males with mighty horns, and the image herds coming chain , and individual animals that were hunted man . Much less image argali . At one of the large rocks in the eastern part of the pit just one picture, but what! Imprinted on it majestic male , with huge , spiral horns, powerful torso , head and graceful slender shapely legs , like a magnificent living argali with lush white fur on his chest suspension , which are still found in the pit Kaskabulak .

A lot of images in the cave paintings of dogs and camels, who played a major role in the life of the ancients.

Not paid attention to the ancient painters and human - of petroglyphs can be seen riders on horses and camels , hunting with a bow or spear. There are fight scenes , dances , even death.

The first mention of the petroglyphs Reserve appeared in the DN Kashkarova written materials on a trip in 1923 . Then there were several scientific publications, but archaeologists still have a lot to reflect on the stone Kaskabulak album , set to some of the symbolic signs, find out who owns some vague images of animals and most importantly - the date the age of the various drawings .

The authors of the text and the drafters A.Ivaschenko , A.Knistaustas .

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