Parent Category: Въездной туризм
Published on Wednesday, 04 September 2013 10:04
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WILDLIFE , invertebrates

 


The most numerous and diverse group of animals of the reserve are invertebrates, of which there are four types of classes 6 and more than 30 units. Not being able to give a detailed description of each squad , focus only on the core .

Earthworms live in all the high-altitude zones where soil . Widely distributed species Eisen Nordshelda recently described two species, including allolobofora snake .

Numerous class of arachnids - spiders, Opilliones , solpugi mites . Highlights of this class - scorpions - the most ancient terrestrial arthropods known since the Paleozoic. About 400 million years ago, relatives scorpions made landfall , and in the Carboniferous period, lived a few species, similar to the existing . Aksu -Dzhabagly in dry areas a hot summer day can be found under rocks spotted scorpion brown- yellow color with dark spots on the back. Its length and 6.5 centimeters. Flexible back part of the body ends poisonous scorpion sting double , with which he kills the prey. For a man scorpion bite the type mentioned above is not lethal , but causes swelling , pain and fever that lasts 2-3 days.

Millipedes are common in the reserve - SOIL animals leading a hidden life, hiding under rocks , in crevices of rocks and other shelters. Do centipedes long, tapered body of a pale yellow or red colors and a lot of leg - the members of the order drupes -15 pairs , and in the dugouts , from 30 to 177 pairs . Aksu -Dzhabagly noted 10 species of millipedes , they are fast, aggressive predators of small size, up to 3-4 cm, their bite can be painful, but generally safe for humans.

Highest species diversity and quantity characterized class of insects , the most numerous class of modern animals , which accounts for about 70 percent of all existing species. Aksu -Dzhabagly established dwelling of about 1200 species of insects out of 20 teams , just as their lives are thousands of species. Among them are a number of useful groups that are involved in the formation of soils are environmental health , pollinators of plants , prevent the mass breeding of harmful species , destroy weeds and, of course , adorn and enrich our nature .

Striking a unique external appearance of praying mantises - large insects with elongated body , movable , triangular head and svoebraznym prehensile limbs adapted to predation . In lurking waiting for prey mantis legs folded in " prayer " position, hence the name of these animals. Inhabit the reserve 3 types - mantis ordinary empuza rogokrylaya and bolivars korotkonadkrylaya . They are encountered mainly in the lower and middle zones of mountains , meadows, steppe areas and the reeds . First 2 species react to light , fly off to him.

In the areas dry fescue grassland steppe summer occasionally be found another kind of bizarre insect with an equally bizarre name. This is representative of the order Phasmatodea , or stick insects . The body dwelling in Aksu Dzhabagly ramulusa dvubugorchatogo single species is very similar to a stick or greenish brown. When the eyes of the branch of the plant begins to come alive - Hidden stick insect is spreading its long jointed limbs - unwillingly remember about ghosts and marvel at the amazing accuracy of the name.

Among the insects, which in most cases we perceive , by ear " in the reserve are many members of the order Orthoptera (46 species). From cricket only in low rare Turan stem cricket . From the foothills to the subalpine zone in a variety of habitats common grasshoppers tailed and mottled , jump Plotnikov , the reeds on the trees and bushes lives katydid , chirping can be heard at night and during the day admire its beautiful , extended up to 100 meters, flight.

Of locusts in the foothills just marked gregarious species - Moroccan locust and the Italian locust in all the zones of mountains widely different types of skates , wingless , with a stocky body konofima Pylnova in high - konofima Sokolov and konofima Boldyrev. For grass steppes are typical for low golubokrylaya filly rarer here chernopolosaya mare , wild horse .

Earwigs in the reserve 2 species. Numerous and widespread black with yellow spots Asian earwig . It makes massive vertical migration and feeds flowers of various plants .

From the order of 2 species of stoneflies are interesting endemic species of the Western Tien - Shan. One of them - the drip kryuchkonosnaya - replicates in the upper reaches of the mountain streams at high altitudes, while the adults fly in early spring , in March - early April.

Poverty is the reserve reservoirs - the reason why the squad dragonflies , whose larvae develop in water , represented by a small number of species ( 17 in total) . The most common is a dragonfly - ordinary and southern , rocker similar , moderately fast flying in the summer months in different habitats . Near Lake Kzylzhar usually keeps a beautiful , large with a flattened belly and short brown spots on the wings of a dragonfly flat. Rarely found Luetke hooked and arrow- girl - Dragonfly frail slender abdomen with a very thin , delicate transparent wings .

Aksu -Dzhabagly more than 100 species of bugs. They are very diverse in form, color , confinement to habitats . Herbivorous species of the most decorative black and red bug Italian , bright blue with red and yellow spots euridemy that feed on plants of the cabbage family . The trees and bushes sometimes numerous green tree stink bug , changing color in autumn , on a brown . Overwintered under leaves, bugs spring green again . Large, about 2 inches long , thick reddish- brown bug - hischnets feeds on small flying insects . If handled carelessly it can cause painful as from a wasp sting , prick .

From the order of most damselflies are numerous leafhoppers, aphids, psyllids . In mid- June, juniper is found in a variety of large, 2 cm long reddish- brown mountain cicada . Males of this species chirping loudly in the days of breeding crickets air rings from their " singing ."

Of lacewing in Aksu Dzhabagly numerous lacewing - pale green, with delicate transparent wings. They are of great use , destroying aphids, thrips, caterpillars and butterflies laying . In summer, the light sometimes flies ant lion larvae which , burrowing into the soil to form a tapered head over funnel trap that fall into the passing insects and larvae become a victim . In summer the meadows rarely seen askalafa - a very beautiful insect resembling a butterfly or dragonfly. He has bright, lemon-yellow wings with black spots and long jointed antennae .

The most studied of the order Coleoptera , or beetles. According to EV Ishkova in Aksu Dzhabagly know now about 700 species belonging to 300 genera and 41 families. First by the number of species is a family of weevils , or elephants . These beetles head stretched out into a long , often exceeding the length of the body tube . All herbivorous weevil larvae and adults feed on the roots , stems, flowers , fruits , etc.

Semeedy kind Apion - small, a few millimeters long , often dark or gray - most richly represented in the reserve (over 20 species). They develop on the mallow , astragalus , etc. One of the most beautiful , bright red semeed blood red sorrel develops . Tail-coat also common ( 13 species) - a rather large 1-2.5 cm , with stretched along the length of the body stebleedy beetles , whose larvae develop on the stems of large grasses, ferrule , prangosa , devjasila large , thistle . Richly represented in the reserve group of soil- weevil genus Skosarev (17 species). This flightless beetles rather large , mostly dark , short proboscis most feed roots of plants. Recently described new species of this genus - Skosarev Aksu - Dzhabagly and karatavsky .

There are numerous kinds of nodule weevils Seaton, common as Skosarev , around the vertical profile of the mountains - from the piedmont ephemeral deserts to the upper limit of the existence of vegetation. These gray- colored medium-sized beetles are related to nutrition and development with plants of the legume family . Their larvae live in the soil and feed on tubers formed on the roots of legumes as a result of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Adult beetles gnaw leaves of alfalfa, clover , Oxytropis .

Some species of weevils developing in the fruit trees and shrubs , bright golden- red -breasted goose - on cherries , blossom weevil Koenig - on the frame Caucasus , others - in large inflorescences of herbs of the family Asteraceae . For example, representatives of the Larin - on Echinops , cousin , cornflowers Turkestan .

Among the weevils have even gall . So , semeed Kyuenburga spring forms a large, up to 3-4 cm in diameter swellings on the stems and petioles umbrella . In these , houses, chalets " develops in 10-20 larvae. By late summer, adult beetles gnaw through the thick walls of the Gauls and go into the soil for the winter.

Ubiquitous in the Aksu- Dzhabagly ground beetles (113 species), belonging to the group of carnivorous beetles , although some are as predators and herbivorous species. Among the interesting carnivorous horse Turkestan - medium sized beetle metallic green with red spots on the back. He quickly runs, flies well , prefers dry open space. The larva lives in burrows , where traps catch , catching you , Pierce mandibles and drains .

The largest beetles of this family belong to the genus of these beetles ( karabus ) . They are 7 species in the reserve , most of them are Western Tien Shan and endemics differ early spring activity. Close to them are large, averaging 3 centimeters long , the most beautiful we Krasotel - odorous and kallistenes Kushakevicha . The first is painted in golden- green color , the second - in the blue- purple with a metallic sheen . Krasotel in the reserve is not numerous , is found mostly in the reeds , and juniper bushes , very useful because it destroys the larvae and pupae of lepidopteran pests . In Western Europe and the European part of the USSR Krasotel odorous taken under protection as a species, reducing their numbers.

Kallistenes Kushakevicha - Western Tien Shan endemic - the most common in the foothills and low mountain steppe. The beetles are most active in April - May, this time on Route 1 kilometer width of 1-2 meters can be counted 14-18 individuals.

Are common in the reserve land species of ground beetles - dim tusklyaki ( 8 species) and black runners ( 7 species) , small bembidiony (11 species). Of the species with interesting biology should mention leby - beautiful , metallic green, blue ( lebii sinegolovaya and spot ), or black with a red- cross yellow pattern ( lebiya Crusader ) beetles with a flattened body of small dimensions. Aksu -Dzhabagly they occur in zones of steppes and juniper woods , often on trees and bushes , usually under the bark juniper, birch . Adults feed on aphids and other insects , and their larvae feed on the pupae of leaf beetles . This is a clear example of the vigorous activity of some species to regulate the number of other , harmful .

An important place in the fauna of the reserve is also occupied by the family of scarab beetles and (55-60 species). Among the latter are ubiquitous dung - afodii (14 species) in low abundant Krawczyk , interesting large - tmol , reaching a diameter of 5 cm , the sacred scarab beetle , rhinoceros beetle Turkestan marble and others.

Of the other families of beetles are often found useful predators ladybugs or coccinellids - 25 species, darkling - 34 species , long-horned beetles , beetles , beetles , blister beetles - at 18-23 species in each family . On the surface and in the upper layers of soil are found predatory beetles - rove , but their species composition in Aksu Dzhabagly not been studied. One can only say that there are more than 100 species of this family.

 

The most prominent , as in all landscapes in the Aksu- Dzhabagly are butterflies , attention- easy flight and extraordinary richness and variety of colors. In early spring there are wintering in adulthood bright yellow limonnitsy family of whiteflies , brown and black patterned Nymphalidae - mnogotsvetnitsa and large, up to 7.5 inches in wingspan , velvety , purple- brown, with yellow edging on the wings traurnitsa . A lot of these butterflies flying around in summer: fluttering yellow- red beauties , reaching 7 centimeters in wingspan , only glimpses of shimmering pearlescent spots on the underside of the hind wings. Dominated by large - perlamutrovki pandora, Aglaia , Niobe , adippa , a large forest and other species.

In the summer, there is a great variety of small but extremely numerous blues , with reddish , dark gray and bright blue wings. For outdoor flying various barhatnitsy brownish -black satire with dark eyes , mottled with black and white stripes kraeglazki Eversmann and pestroglazki Suvorov , ocher- yellow and red Sennitsy .

The biggest attraction Aksu Dzhabagly - high mountain Tien Shan region - the Cavaliers are members of the family , or sailing . Besides swallowtail , widespread in other areas, there are 6 types of Apollo - large butterfly with transparent wings whitish , decorated with black spots , as in most species , and even red or yellow eyes .

In the lower and middle zones of the mountains numerous black Apollo . In June, during mass flight in the meadow areas Tracts Chuuldak we observed up to 5-7 individuals of this species in the area in square meters . In similar habitats found and spotted Apollo , the size of which is slightly less. In the highlands , in the subalpine and alpine zones since mid-July , flies Tien Shan Apollo . This bright butterfly with large bright red spots on the hind wings in the reserve are very numerous. In late July and early August on the rocky sections of the Alpine belt can see her caterpillars, black with red spots , which feed on succulent leaves of different species of the family Crassulaceae Rhodiola .

Among other rare butterflies in Aksu Dzhabagly summer alpine jaundice occurs Wiskott , bright orange color , while the lower zone in the spring - nosatka - a representative of a small family of the same name , which the caterpillars feed on the leaves frame the Caucasus .

Of nocturnal Lepidoptera most representative species scoops -132 and -103 moth species. Among them are many species, caterpillars which cause some damage to vegetation . There are also rare . So, from moths described 3 new species unknown to science , as well as one new genus " povilaziya " , named after the famous Lithuanian Povilas etmologa Ivinskisa . Scoop from 3 types so far been known only by the finds are now finalized their distribution . Overall of both families are representatives of different zoogeographical complexes , but the role of endemic Tien Shan mountain species is about the same - about 10 percent in each family .

Fall in Aksu Dzhabagly flock to light beautiful night butterfly peacock small night . Summer in the lower and middle mountain zones are large colorful revelers - Euphorbiaceae , a line , the Central Asian , Kindermann . All of them belong to the rare species and require special protection. 2 species of hawk moths still be seen in the Aksu- Dzhabagly day. It is grayish -brown plain hobotnik and more shallow, with transparent wings shmelevidka . Remarkable flight of these butterflies - they do not sit on the flowers and suck the nectar long proboscis on the fly - hovering over a flower in hovering flight. Very fast and frequent beating of wings make it impossible to clearly see the butterfly can be seen only by its shape. Thus the behavior of revelers reminiscent of tropical birds - hummingbirds.

Are fairly common in the reserve and some of lappet Moth - ringed and gypsy moth , Euproctis chrysorrhoea . In some years, there were outbreak Satin Moth - a large snow- white butterfly , colorful caterpillars which can completely destroy the leaves on willows and poplars.

Members of the order Hymenoptera , too, are ubiquitous in nature reserve - is home to 25 species of sawflies , 17 ant species , 47 species of bee , a few dozen species of parasitic Hymenoptera ( Chalcid , riders , gall wasps ) .

Small , modestly colored Rosalie gall-fly , only 3-4 millimeters long , lays eggs in the buds of wild roses . In the result of the activity of the larvae grow wild rose branches , forming a huge , a few centimeters in diameter , multi-chamber gal round, resembling the color of ripe rose hips .

Of bees is most noticeable single carpenter bee , which is due to the resemblance is sometimes called the bumblebee . This round black insect with a blue- purple hue in the spring and summer, feeding on nectar of various flowering plants, and its larvae develop in the dry dead wood . Of the smaller bees are common ground and leaf-cutting bees . The reserve is also home to six species of live bees . All of these insects , feeding on the nectar of great benefit , promoting cross-pollination of plants.

Among the members of the order Diptera flies are common hoverflies , lvink , muravevidki , flower flies. Very numerous horse flies , which are more than 20 species. Interestingly horsefly Shevchenko, who spread from the foothills to the alpine zone .

 

The authors of the text and the drafters A. Ivashchenko , A. Knistaustas .

 

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