Parent Category: Въездной туризм
Published on Wednesday, 04 September 2013 10:16
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WILDLIFE , vertebrates



World vertebrates Reserve is less rich - only 300 species live here . Very few fish in the lower reaches of some rivers meet marinka and char Kashgar .

Amphibians are also represented by two species . In reservoirs of low mountains , particularly in the lake Kzylzhar inhabits marsh frog . In May - June sudden loud sounds are croaking males. Many researchers characterize the lake frog as agile and strong animal that is eating mostly worms , mollusks and insects often attack and a fairly large catch mice , small snakes , birds, lizards. In the mountain frog does not rise.

Green toad , on the contrary , is widespread in the nature reserve , home to the foothills of the lower border of the Alpine belt . Usually active at night , hiding during the day in shelters , but high in the mountains to hunt during the day. One day in August, we saw a toad to move around in the upper reaches of the river Dzhabagly at an altitude of 2800 meters above sea level. In such places her eggs develop into very cold water that goes down to 7-8 degrees. Active green toad in low for 7-8 months - the first " song" in the vicinity of the village Novonikolaevka usually heard in the last week of March, and the last toads can still be found at the end of October - November.

The reserve of 9 species of reptiles. In the foothills and lowlands inhabited by colorful lizard and glass-lizard . Both species are scarce. Glass-lizard is listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan , its numbers reduced due to development as a human habitat reptile , and because of the direct destruction - ignorant people often take it for a snake . It is a long , up to 120 centimeters, a lizard with a large four-sided head and a strong muscular body yellowish- whitish or light brown color. The snake has a well -defined lateral folds of skin running along the entire body, and clearly separated for centuries , while the snakes eyes are covered with a transparent membrane, fixed , so always look open .

Glass-lizard is most active in the spring after hibernation. At this time, it can often be found still basking in the sun or move in search of food. It eliminates a lot of snails and slugs naked , and various insects, especially large beetles . Often, it becomes prey and small rodents , lizards and sometimes small snakes . In the hot summer months Activity glass-lizard goes down, it goes only in the mornings and evenings , hunt mostly at night . Daytime spends in burrows or dense thickets of shrubs. In early summer, females lay about a dozen eggs , of which about 2 months are derived small lizards . They are a very secretive way of life, so to see them in nature few people can .

The smallest and most common in Aksu Dzhabagly lizard - Alay , body length not exceeding 7.6 inches, and weight is about 4 grams. Gologlaz - very quick and graceful animal shiny dark -green color. It lives on the lowlands to alpine mountain zone , occurring even at the height of 3800 meters above sea level. More often adheres to the rocky slopes of the mountains with lush vegetation, usually near rocks and stony placers . In case of danger quickly disappears under rocks or in crevices of the soil. It feeds on insects. Since gologlaz live in a harsh climate with sharp fluctuations in temperature , which are unfavorable to the development of the embryo in the egg, it multiplies , giving birth to live young .

The serpent in the reserve 6 species : snakes - patterned and colored, arrow-snake , copperhead plain , steppe viper and water snake .

Snakes - large, about a meter long, non-venomous snakes live in the piedmont and low zones, sometimes rise up to 2000-2500 meters above sea level. Usually kept on the overgrown shrub slopes, rocky areas along the river banks , meadow areas. Do not avoid the proximity of a person , settling in the gardens , cracked adobe walls and thatched roof houses.

The general background color of both species grayish -brown , only colored skid along the back are dark brown or lead- gray oblique spots, sometimes coalescing into a continuous zigzag stripe. Coluber characterized by the presence of four longitudinal brown stripes along the body and narrow , darker transverse spots . Both runner good dive and swim , climb trees well to escape the heat or climbing into the nests of birds. Had no time to watch coluber , comfortably ensconced in a nest of a blackbird in the apple tree , at a height of 1.5 meters from the ground, where he was resting , eating breakfast laying thrush. On another occasion, failed to see his brother ate eggs spotted Rock Thrush , and absolutely no reaction to the approach of humans and attempts to drive him away from the nest.

Arrow-snake has an exceptionally thin body and the length does not yield to runners. In the area of the reserve occasionally found in the foothills and low mountains on dry rocky slopes. The boom is characterized by a very high speed and unusual swiftness of movement , so it got its name . Fleeing an arrow - snake man difficult to catch up . In Turkmenistan, was the cause of this feature is common myth that supposedly deadly snake for large animals - can instantly pierce the body of a camel and reach the heart . This is certainly not the case. Bite it for large animals and humans is perfectly safe . It feeds mainly lizards , and small and young individuals - large insects .

The really poisonous , and to some extent are a danger to humans and farm animals, two kinds of snakes - Orsini's viper and common copperhead . Viper found on the steppe and shrub slopes , in ravines and gullies , sometimes along roadsides . The length of her body no more than 50 inches , the color is brownish -gray, with dark zigzag stripe along the spine . Sometimes there are dark, almost black individuals .

Copperhead snake got its name because of the large plates on the upper side of the head. His body is relatively short, a little more than 70 centimeters, sharp passing , like a viper , a short tail . Colouring diverse - from gray to brown and even brick red . On the back - wide dark transverse spots on the head - spotted a clear pattern . Live copperhead on dry gravelly and stony slopes , climb into the mountains up to 4,000 meters above sea level. The mountains are active during the day . This is one of the most common snakes in the reserve. Cases of human viper bites are rare and moccasins . These snakes are more dangerous for horses and cattle.

Unlike snakes and arrows , snakes , vipers and cottonmouth give birth to live young. Both of these species are of great use , as their diet consists mainly of insects and rodents. Less commonly eaten by lizards, sometimes eggs and nestlings of small birds.

Varied landscapes of the reserve can not be imagined without the feathered inhabitants. They are easy to fly , bright plumage , a variety of songs can not be indifferent to any person. Aksu -Dzhabagly inhabits 238 bird species , of which 123 species nest , 85 - are found in the passage , 24 - arrive for the winter , 14 species of birds listed in the Red Book of the USSR and the Kazakh SSR , including nesting 8 (black stork, bearded , golden eagle, booted eagle , serpent eagle , vulture, blue bird , paradise flycatcher ) .

Black Stork has always been rare in Aksu Dzhabagly . In recent years, 1-2 pairs nest in the canyon rivers Bala Baldabrek and Aksu. In the remote inaccessible places it suits their massive nests on cliffs or large trees. It feeds mainly on shallow waters where fishing , frogs, aquatic insects. During the day you can watch the nesting black storks , flying down the river for food , and returning back . This rare , large and bright bird - the best decoration Aksu Dzhabagly mountains - should be protected everywhere, both on the breeding grounds , and during the flight .

In forest and shrub plantings up to the subalpine zone is ubiquitous big turtle . Her loose, translucent nests of twigs , located on the juniper bushes and honeysuckle are usually not apparent. But frightened from the nest , the turtle takes off with a sharp noise, flapping their wings , and during mating everywhere heard her muffled coo strong . This granivorous bird, but during the mass ripening eating lots of berries cherry - magalebki , honeysuckle. Large dove love salt, they can often be found on the artificial solonetzes , arranged in a nature reserve for wild rams and goats .

Among other common pigeons nesting in colonies on cliffs dove on juniper wood pigeon nests are built - the largest pigeon our fauna , in the foothill villages and in the cordon settles very "home " that is tied to a person , a small turtle .

Among the most notable of chicken Himalayan snow cock and chukar . Lively and agile partridge often climbs the rocky eminence. Sometimes it is hard to notice because of the gray color on a background of stones. The number of chukar subject to significant fluctuations. In the snowy cold winter a lot of them die from cold and starvation . So , after a harsh winter 1968-1969 year for two years met a single mother. But the restoration of the population was fast in the autumn of 1974 and in the canyons of Aksai Topshak met on 5- km route to 300-400 partridge . As recently revealed partridges have an original device , allowing to quickly restore their numbers . Female suits 2 nests , laying eggs in the first one , then the other. After oviposition, the couple assign duties - one female incubates the clutch , the second - male . He also leads her brood to purchase kids independence.

Ular unlike chukar , inhabiting almost all the high-altitude zones , is a typical inhabitant of the highlands . It inhabits rocky slopes, found in alpine meadows with juicy herbage . This bird is remarkably adapted to life in the harsh conditions. She has a tight compact body, thick fluffy tail , short powerful legs , which ular fast runs on the slopes . Ular few who can see . Most often , rising to the crest of the range , you can hear it loud cry , beginning with a pinch of increasing the whistle , rolling in a kind of warbling . Hearing the characteristic whistle , you need to watch carefully and if in front of a sufficient field of view , you can see ular , easy gliding on the opposite side of the steep gorges, sparkling large white patches on the wings .

At all times ular valued as excellent , though not an easy hunting game . In the 60 years of its numbers in Aksu Dzhabagly was not very high , but in the last 10-15 years ular become quite common throughout the territory. In late June, met with the female on the pass puhovichke Ulken Kaindy and adjacent to a nature reserve in the tract Saryaygyr . Nest was found even at the lower end of subalpine zone at an altitude of 2,200 meters above sea level.

Of large predators in the reserve is rare vulture, which breeds only in the lower mountain zone . The couple , cruise techs "in recent years settled on the pass Boranchiasu after the device nearby folds for sheep. 's Nest , located in the niche of low -facing cliffs to the north , it was habitable in the past 5 years. In 1981, April 29, it was a complete masonry of 2 eggs , 30 July - 2 feathered , varying in size chick , Aug. 13 -1 in the gray plumage . regurgitates collected under the seat , allowed to determine the diet of the pair. predominated in them the remains of lambs wool and other livestock , the tenth part was made by wool and vole bones and the remains of small birds , including the wing roller .

Interestingly, next to the nest vulture couple moved rocky nuthatches , in relation to which the main host rock showed no signs of aggression. Quickly enough , he humbled himself , and with a tent for shooting set us 10 meters away from the foot of the cliff.

Grief settled lives in the reserve . Its numbers here ranges - in the 60 years he has met twice less than the griffon vulture . In recent years the number has increased vulture , vulture and , conversely, decreased . Now the value of these species is the same as observed in the years 1933-1935 . In the valley of the river Dzhabagly 2 pairs of vultures nest . One of the nests in the tract Baydaksay , known since 1933 , the birds were visiting in the 60s and constantly nest with 80s. Another , found in 1976 , is located in a straight line kilometers in eight . Same type of device - both are located at the tops of the single old juniper trees growing in the lower parts of the western slopes.

First of May in the nests were laying at the end of May - the chicks that reached to the middle of next month the size of chicken. Interestingly, the young birds are kept for a long time in the nest , and often sit in it after departure. On a sunny day on October 10 grifenok sitting in the nest, then took off , retiring to a considerable distance , came back and sat down on a rock nearby . One of the parents at that time was flying nearby.

Baydaksayskogo nests of vultures that after the first shots were traditionally named Grisha , very relaxed attitude to human presence and flew up to the nest within half an hour after someone climbed into the tent , located a few meters away from the tree with the nest.

 

The largest bird in the reserve - the bearded man . Its wingspan reaches almost 3 meters and the length of the body - more than a meter . In flight, this beautiful predator is easily recognized by the long wedge-shaped tail . Adult birds head and neck whitish , back, wings and tail are black , whitish underparts . Noteworthy black stripes around the eyes and the same color bristle feathers around the beak , which form at the bottom of " beard " .

The bearded man - only mountain bird , clearly tied to the rocky highlands and open areas . Nests are usually satisfied in the niches of hard rocks, so until now none of them are found in the Aksu- Dzhabagly . Most often can be observed alone , at least - two birds flying their possession . In flight, the bearded man is very handsome , he often flies low over the slopes , looking for prey , and kept at the same height from the ground , repeating all the twists and projections of relief. Sometimes he flies pretty close to the man , bursting out from behind the rock , or the crest of the ridge , then you can hear the whistle of bluff , published by flapping their wings as a result of vibration.

The sudden appearance of the noise and rapidity of such a large flight of birds often cause fright in animals and even humans. Being on a steep mountain trail, on the edge of a cliff over the abyss , they may break down . Therefore, bearded long time attributed to this method of hunting , pushing into the abyss of human and animal , and then eating the corpses. However, observations of bird watchers in the nature and results of the autopsy showed the stomachs of birds that feed mainly on carrion bearded , and is content with the remains of the feast of vultures and vultures . He often accrue to a purely treated bone that is well digested in his stomach. Of course, he eats live prey . Some scientists fortunate to witness a successful hunt birds on the turtles, woodchucks , rabbits , partridge , ulars . However, due to the rarity of the bearded man can not in any significant impact on the number of these animals , and use it as a medic doubt.

A real bird hunting in the reserve - the golden eagle . This strong , agile and swift predator can produce except birds and marmots young ungulates and domesticated birds take even a fox and a wolf. Aksu -Dzhabagly its number is fairly constant . It is known 6 sockets arranged on the rocks in which the eagles lived in different years. Record set for the long-term attachment slots over a waterfall Kishi Kaindy that was habitable in 1926 and in 1930. In 1933, the Golden Eagles had left him . Golden Eagles have not lived here in 60-70 years. Only in the late summer of 1982 it was noticed that the old nest renovating and complete the fresh branches. In 1984, the pair led the Golden Eagles are young. That summer, many were surprised and delighted the proud eagles flying and courage .

For the Golden Eagles are very interesting to watch , especially in the spring when birds pair of huge plays in the air , then coming closer , then moving away from each other. Extraordinarily difficult turns and doing a figure they sometimes approaching the jack located on a small cliff Tracts Kzylzhar . Long a rapid flight from the distant peaks in this case is completed hard braking and totally unexpected - a virtuoso noose before the rock.

And we had to talk to a fully fledged Berkutenko Lenya , which is two hundred feet from us paced the socket , arranged in the surrounding rock, and then , as if determined to prove that he is very, very grown-up , spread its dark chocolate with large white spots wings and fly far, far down into the gorge. For many, the symbol of the reserve Aksu- Dzhabagly will always be the golden eagle on a background of blue sky.

Owls in Aksu Dzhabagly few. In the lowlands and juniper in the spring and summer, heard the gentle frequent whistles , sleep -yu, sleep - yu, " the smallest owls of our fauna - splyushki . Sometimes in old nests of forty can not see the family - the kids asleep in the nest and the adult bird - a tree branch, completely invisible , like a plain gray speck . Disturbed splyushka excitedly cranes , turn their head to the comic antics of following the movements of the person.

Rare in the reserve and owl - the largest nocturnal bird that weighs around 3 pounds and has a wingspan - more than 1.5 meters. Meet the owl can only at dusk or at night, very rarely scare him off a cliff nepogozhie on cloudy days. Slowly flapping its wings wide , dark -brown bird with a powerful soft loose feathers floats silently in front of you in time-lapse photography shots . Owl nests in shelters between the rocks in the cliffs , lay eggs directly on the ground . The presence of it can often learn by loud " uhayuschemu " cry so the remains of a night of feasting in the vicinity of the nest : the fresh corpse of a young fox , pieces of fur and paws hare tolaya .

Whimsical ligature small cross pattern on the feathers of birds like the Arabic letters . For centuries it was thought that this is reminiscent of the inscription of the Muslim holy book - the Koran , so owl feathers to decorate the cradle and baby clothes , the national headgear . Popularity birds has led to a sharp decline in its numbers . Ornithologists recommend to place an owl in the Red Book of the Republic.

Another of the night birds commonly nest in the reserve in the open areas of the foothills to the alpine zone . This nightjar , swiftly and silently zipping through the air at night , his huge mouth , like a net , capturing insects. During the nesting each night heard the monotonous , straight male trills , resembling the distant rumble of the tractor , accompanied by crackling flapping .

In the simplest nightjar and unusual nest. Rather, the nest itself is not . Clutch of 2 eggs , very similar to the normal pebbles strewn thickly marbled dull streaks , lying on the ground with no shelter. However, it is so well camouflaged against the rocky slopes that see it as hatching bird similar to dry rotten , very difficult. Usually laying dormant for nightjar sees right under their feet clapping and dramatically long , sandy gray wings long turns around, sitting down on the ground, then taking off again .

The most richly represented in the reserve passerines . In the foothills and lower mountain zones from early spring to early summer incessant ringing trills larks. On dry steppe areas up to the upper limit of juniper forest nest 3 species - field , steppe and mite . And in the subalpine and alpine zones in open areas often found another bird -Alpine , or horny . So called because of its distinctive black feathers , which are located on the head of the male in the form of small horns . This miniature " feathered Mephistopheles " very high mountain landscape animates its bright appearance and a quiet but very pleasant and melodious song . Winter flocks of horned larks come down to the lower belt of the mountains, where they feed on protalinki , roads and even near the farms, eating the seeds of various plants and small insects.

In the reserve there are no large bodies of water , so the water birds are found here only during the span. But all the rivers and even small streams chosen passerines , whose life is closely linked to water. It Dipper - brown and white-bellied , small stocky bird with dense plumage, not wetted by water . They are great swim and dive , quickly move on the rocky bottom streams, foraging , small crustaceans and aquatic insects . In addition to the dense plumage Dipper have a well -developed layer of fluff that prevents them from cooling .

Original nests of these birds. Voluminous spherical structure made of green moss with a side entrance facing the water , only a trained eye will notice observant person , since the birds put it in rock crevices , under the overhanging edges of the coast , and sometimes - under a stream of small waterfalls. Even located quite openly on the tiny island nest seems to be just round mossy stone.

The house Dipper constantly damp, dark and cool, but chicks feel fine here , with appetite absorb food that brings parents , are rapidly growing in the third week of life with lightning speed jump out of the nest into the water. Fly they do not know how , but swim and dive better than their parents.

The presence of water streams and rocky areas on their shores - a prerequisite for breeding rare in Kazakhstan, representatives of Indian fauna blue bird , or, as it is called, Turkestan purple thrush . Raw , cool shady spot in the niches of rocks are home to massive, but well camouflaged nests bluebird . Sometimes we have to spend a few hours before you can find and get to a neat dense bowl of green moss and roots, lined inside with thin roots and old leaves.

In the mid-to late May in the nests appears clutch of 4-6 eggs with pale brown streaks on the common dense white background. 17 days, the female incubates the clutch , leaving it only for a very short time to feed . Newborn chicks are quite unlike the beautiful, impulsive parents. A couple of awkward blind monsters with grayish- pink skin and sparse tufts of dark gray fluff. They are inactive, almost all the time, having lost in a pile , aloof asleep in the nest, lively razevaya mouths only with the appearance of adult birds with food .

More than three weeks feed their parents - at first only female, but over time the kids growing appetite , and the male will inevitably have increasingly favored leaving a stump or stone , on which he sang happily in the old days , and switch to a more prosaic occupation - dart about in the grass and stir up the litter , jump from branch to branch, in short, in all possible ways to provide food to the younger generation.

By the end of the period of stay in the nest chicks are fully feathered , often emit a pleasant melodious sounds - a bit of a weak metal bells chime . They are becoming more mobile and restless, when approaching a man to the socket may even jump out of it . Generally bluebirds very careful when disturbed by humans , such as tourist campsite near the nest, can throw it . It is true that happens, they put up with the temporary presence of the person and arrange a nest in a familiar , favorite place . There are cases of successful breeding chicks in nests arranged on the walls of the locks at the water intake channel of the river and the former Dzhabagly Aksaysky HPP.

Aksu -Dzhabagly bluebird quite plentiful - in some valleys throughout the five-kilometer river meets 5-7 nests . Found that vykarmlivaya chicks almost exclusively on insects, it kills many grasshoppers and caterpillars of butterflies scoop.

But what about the happiness that supposedly brings fairy blue bird ? Imagine for a moment the following picture: on the cliff , cutting sparkling spray roaring waterfall , graceful moves springy jumps rather large bird with long slender legs . Its tail in constant motion - that rises straight up , then gently lowered down, folds and unfolds. In the shadow of the rock bird seems almost black , but she jumped out of the illuminated area and the miracle of the transformation - its plumage shone dark blue and purple tones, shimmering metallic luster , and across the wing , like a thread of pearls - a chain of drop-shaped white spots . . . Located on a wet rock , covered with emerald carpet of moss , bird singing and melodious flute spilled roulades ...

Here you have the good fortune , happiness, communication with wild untouched nature, a rare bird, descended from the pages of the Red Book . . .

No less exotic paradise flycatcher , which is considered one of the most beautiful birds of Central Asia. The bright red back, blue-black head with a long crest and a very long tail reaching old males 20 centimeters , and the suddenness and rapidity of the appearance in the dense shade of deciduous groves , where it suits their nest , leave the impression of a live meeting with a bright flame. In Kazakhstan, this representative of the South Asian fauna lives only in the mountains of Tau and Aksu Dzhabagly . The reliability of its nest in the reserve was established in 1960. In subsequent years, we have found 1-2 of this bird nest in forests and plantations of apple walnut gorges Dzhabagly , Aksu, Taldybulak . A small neat nest is usually located on the hanging branches of the trees , does not contain adult bird entirely , it fits only the torso. It is interesting to observe how on the one hand the nest sticks crested head , and the other hangs a bright orange tail. Under the seat is always possible to find a lot of colorful wings of butterflies, paradise flycatcher torsos which fledge .

The most elegant of bird reserve nightingales . Here, apart from the usual inconspicuous color of the Nightingale still live 2 kinds - chernogrudaya krasnosheyka and white- nightingale . This is a small, very slender graceful birds with long legs and a movable tail. Males are dark gray with a black tone with a bright red and white at the first of the second kind of triangular patches on the neck .

Krasnosheyka lives in the subalpine zone , a well- camouflaged nests on the ground, under the guise of branches prostrate or creeping juniper dernovki various herbs. Belosheyka lives in the lower zones of mountains , choosing to nest shallow dry valley with juniper woodlands and thickets of tall umbrella . Nests are often satisfied with quite openly - at low honeysuckle bushes , at least - in the lower part of the crown of juniper trees. Both species feed on insects , eating small butterflies , caterpillars , ants. Males sing nicely , but their song is pretty simple. Fine current flights, the birds are singing in the air, and then slowly and gradually decline , dropping to a tree branch or bush .

Once huntsmen watched as the nesting site belosheek fox appeared , trying to hunt marmots , a colony which was located on the same slope. Marmots quickly disappeared into the burrows , a female nightingale was sitting on the nest , heating, baby chicks , and the male at the sight of a predator , flew from bush to bush , and in the power of his weak little voice shouted . Fox longingly looked into marmot burrows , diligently sniffing , moving from hole to hole, but marmots as extinct. Tenderness on his face was replaced by a fox hurt cutesy - expression , she began to look around the sides. The nest was belosheyki from it already ten meters . Came to the aid of a female to the male . Nightingales raised unimaginable cry , flying from place to place, circled , in every way diverting fox. A male right in the yard away from her nose would sit on the ground or on a bush and cried , cried , cried . . . Fox turned to meditation , overlooking the meadow. Nightingale flew and sat down again with a loud cry from her nose. When the little red-haired predator retired from the nest nightingale sat in his view inflexible determination , and the father of the family for a few minutes spinning around uninvited guest, as she seems desperate to try surchatiny , disappeared behind the crest of the slope.

The most numerous and are common in the mountains of the reserve in the summer of bile oatmeal. Males of them - bright yellow with a brown head - usually sit on the tops of trees or shrubs , singing his song scanty . From the lowlands to the subalpine zone can be found nests of these birds - loose bowls buildings located on low bushes , small trees , and sometimes on the grass.

But in other species of passerine nests reserve more sophisticated and attractive . For example, they look like a mitten Tit hanging over the water on thin twigs of willow and birch trees . Retinue of plant down , this socket has thick , up to 2 centimeters walls. In some European countries from nests Remez make soft slippers , and in traditional medicine , they are considered healing - they are applied to the body for pain and bruises .

The original nest on the cliffs satisfied nuthatch - light gray restless Pichugov long chisel beak. Fashioned out of clay , these nests unusually strong, do not give a knife and held a lot of people , and weigh only a few pounds . Rock nuthatch loves to decorate their nests vleplyu in their walls insect wings and bright feathers of birds.

Numerous representatives of the feathered kingdom Aksu Dzhabagly notable not only for its beauty or rarity , they also bring huge benefits , destroying insects. In addition to these species has yet to be mentioned pink starlings , suiting the summer thousands of noisy , , bazaars " at breeding colonies in the low mountains of rock streams . Each starling per day eats about 200-300 grams of locusts , but still about the same feeds the chicks . According to scientists , only one colony of 10 kills thousands of birds over the summer at least 100 tons of dangerous voracious pest .

Birds also have a lot of help in seed dispersal . For birds , , , sowers " rightfully belongs thrush thrush that lives permanently in juniper and eating only fruits in the winter the tree. Blackbird One for 6 months distributes about 30-60 thousand seeds of juniper and alpine flock of jackdaws who commit during the winter daily vertical migration of low hills to the alpine zone , can only settle for a time of about 90,000 seeds.

Diverse in Aksu Dzhabagly and the world of mammals, of which there are about 50 species . On the reserve and the surrounding foothills are great jerboa , Korsakov , steppe polecat, some species of bats .

From the order of insectivorous ephemeral semi-desert in the foothills and lower parts of the valleys and Taldybulak Baybarak inhabits a very cute little animal - eared hedgehog , featuring unusually long ears . Most often, it can be observed in the spring, when waking up from hibernation, he moves in small steps on the open steppe . Caught animal is fast becoming a trusting , rolled a short time, soon re- opens, curiously looking at the world around bright eyes beady . It feeds mainly on large insects hedgehog , often eats too small rodents , birds , lizards, and can cope with the steppe viper .

The same applies squad and one of the small animals of our fauna , white-toothed shrew shrew is a small , common in the lower and middle zones of the mountains and valleys , often living in the fields and gardens. Her unusual appearance in an elongated proboscis - long nose - is sometimes ignorant people puzzled . Shrew eats a variety of insects per night 1.5-3 times its weight .

Superstitious fear in people because of silent night flight , peculiar appearance and fantastic stories about " krovopiystve ' cause the representatives of another group - the bats , or bats. In the reserve and surrounding them are more than 10 species. Particular interest is rare , which is included in red Data book of the USSR , shirokouhy tailed . belongs to the family of this type buldogovyh bats that have received its name from the thick fleshy upper lip , collected , like a bulldog , in the folds of covering the mouth opening . On the territory of Aksu Dzhabagly it is not detected, although there are meeting him in the cave of Ak- Mosque in the foothills of the Tau and the pass Chokpak where two individuals were caught in the traps for birds.

The most numerous and common in the reserve bat - dwarf uncommon eared bat , the greater horseshoe bat and others. In need of protection of all kinds of bats , as the number of these beneficial insect-eating animals everywhere declining.

From the order of lagomorphs , presented in Aksu Dzhabagly two species throughout the territory of the reserve is found tolai hare . In Talas Alatau he dwells on high, 1300-1500 meters above sea level. However, in the last decade we have continuously met him up to the subalpine zone , 2,800 meters above sea level. Especially numerous this kind of Dzhabagly River Valley , home to a wide variety of habitats - riparian woodlands , meadows, tall- and creeping juniper .

 
Tolai twilight- is mostly nocturnal, but is often found in the afternoon. The reserve is usually nepuglivy animals - sometimes they may feed a few meters away from riding a horse person , even though I see it. There have been cases when an inquisitive hare came almost every day to the house of field base Kishi Kaindy and little son of the Reserve carefully fed the double-crested another carrot or cabbage.

But other members of the order of lagomorphs - pika - red seen in the reserve can not please everyone . The number of its low - known to inhabit only the tract Karasaj , Kaskabulak , Shungulduk , and BAHRAN Valley Ulken Aksu, from 1,900 to 31,000 feet above sea level. Pika - inhabitant krupnokamenistyh scree and rocky places in the natural crevices and niches which suit their shelters .

The most numerous and common in the reserve rodents ( 15 species ) , including the small mouse-like - dwarf hamster , common mole voles , wood mouse , silver , Juniper and Kyrgyz voles .

It occurs in the reserve is the largest rodent fauna of the USSR - Indian porcupine weighing up to 13-25 pounds. The upper part of the body is covered with thick spindly needles from 3 to 30 centimeters long , is painted in white and black stripes . Strong legs are armed with strong claws , as do a lot of digging porcupine : the hole in the rocky ground, and gather food - bulbs and rhizomes of plants.

In the 30 years of the porcupine was more plentiful in recent years due to the development of habitat and the direct extermination of its population has declined sharply , and in the category of endangered species it is listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan . The reserve is inhabited by several pairs of porcupines - constantly finding a needle in a canyon of the river Aksu, in recent years - in the gorge Taldybulak .

One of the most common , easy-to- follow rodents is red, or long-tailed marmot , colonial settlements which are found throughout the reserve. Especially a lot of marmots in the river valleys and Dzhabagly Kishi Aksu. The numbers of this animal varies greatly . For example , during the creation of the reserve , it was very high , and then in 1933 the entire valley Dzhabagly there were a total of 16 individuals and hundreds of empty holes where the 550 individuals in 1944 , and in 1972-1974 only in the valley Dzhabagly they lived about 2000 , and there were settlements even in the lower parts Dzhabaglytau at an altitude of 1,400 meters above sea level. After 10 years, their amount by visual estimate again markedly decreased.

Deposited into a prolonged hibernation marmots in summer very enliven the landscape of the reserve. Having settled on their observation post - stumps , boulders , or just on top of butanes , fluffy orange watch vigilantly overlook the neighborhood , while other individuals are grazing , running around in the grass or play , embracing his front paws just like the fighters in the arena . Seeing the danger , waking Guardian publishes iridescent sonorous whistle, and all the animals immediately rush to the holes. They run a heavy gallop , waving to the beat jump curved tail.

Marmots families , taking a few holes, prominent among which are well -trodden path. In the spring of holes out early - at the end of March or beginning of April. Sometimes the holes are still covered with snow , while groundhogs dig the proceedings to a depth of 70-100 centimeters. In summer, the daytime intensive feeding . As part of fodder home to 70 species of plants. The most readily eat listohvost , Ground- , yarrow, goose onions, alfalfa, clover , onions Mabuza Globeflowers etc.

By the end of the summer, before hibernation (end of August - beginning of September) , marmots accumulate a significant amount of fat which constitutes about 30 percent of their total mass.

In many literatures about the reserve among its inhabitants , and the other is a type of marmot, endemic to the Western Tien Shan , listed in the Red Data Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature - marmot marmot . Unfortunately, the territory of Aksu Dzhabagly range of this species does not apply . Marmot lives in two isolated populations - in the valleys of the rivers Sayramsu Badam and the south- western boundary of the reserve and Chatkalskiy ridge within Uzbekistan. Kazakhstan marmot marmot population is now under threat of extinction - the size of its declining annually . Thus, according to the Red Book of the USSR in the 60s it was 30,000 individuals in 1973 , 25,000 in 1984 , only 8.9 million. Marmot marmot suffers from grazing and direct extermination by poachers and shepherds. If in the coming years will be capable of commandments of the territory , which was proposed in 1940 , to save the marmot marmot in Kazakhstan will be impossible. To blacklist irreparable loss will add one more look.

For rodents is also another elegant and cute animal - forest dormouse . She looks like a mouse , but it has a long tail , fluffy, as if covered with combed hair on the two sides , so is somewhat similar to a squirrel . Especially when running quickly and smartly on the trunks and branches of trees or jumping to the ground from a great height , spreading to the side , all four legs and a tail fluffed up . Sleeper lives from the foothills to the subalpine zone , the reeds , thickets of deciduous trees and shrubs, tall- and creeping juniper . Nests satisfied by juniper , apple , willow , hawthorn , buckthorn, barberry bushes on , rose, honeysuckle. Often settles in attics, walls and crevices Duvalov , and in the mountains even in tents - temporary housing researchers. Animals are active from early spring to late fall , winter spend in hibernation , usually in burrows dug under tree roots or in hollows .

Eat the vegetable and animal feed - apples , all sorts of berries and insects. Sometimes the prey , pillaging nests of small passerine birds, often take sinichniki , surviving are zheltogruduyu blue tits .

Predatory animals often can be found in the nature reserve of the big game - the Tien Shan brown bear, the size of which there is 60-70 individuals. This is the highest density of population of the species within the area .

Bears live throughout the reserve , moving depending on the availability of food . Dens are usually satisfied in the rugged remote places not lower subalpine zone , so as you leave them in the early spring , in March - early April , the animals have to go down to the pasture in the lower zones of the mountains and on the southern slopes , where the snow had melted . They eat at this time of major roots of the ferrule , rhubarb , dry grass, tulip bulbs , bulbous barley , pick up the remains of dead animals , etc.

The whole growing season of vegetation by the end of August - beginning of September, the basis of the diet of succulent forbs , up to 70 different species, including umbrella , beans, Grechishnikov , desert-candle , rhubarb . If in April bear can often be found in the lower zones of the mountains , in the hot summer months it is held in the areas of subalpine meadows, where the grass is still green and lush . When ripe fruits and berries , bear reappears in the low , where a large number of eating apples , rosehips , blackberries , barberry . However, the basis of berry feed in the autumn are still major sugar shishkoyagody juniper .

Animal feed in the diet of the Tien Shan subspecies play a secondary role. As to domestic and wild animals it hunts apparently rare. More often eats the remains of fallen or trophies, obtained a wolf . Often digs burrows of rodents , especially voles and groundhogs , though not always successfully .

Summer June day huntsmen . seen as a major bear hunting marmot colonies in the valley Chushkabulak . It's a very funny show. First, attention is drawn to the unusual behavior of the bear, which is worn up and down the hill is quite steep , overgrown with thick grass , then abruptly stopping, then re- launch at the short gallop. Watching the bear with binoculars , noticed how he started digging holes paws - first standing up and then sat down and continued to work paws : only earth flew in all directions. There were a few attempts , and he dug every hole, some running to just sniffed and raced to the next. This lasted for about an hour unsuccessfully , hunting , "then bear calmed down , went to the edge of the clearing and began to graze like a cow , capturing his mouth bunches of flowering stems Grechishnikov .

Bears in the reserve is not very shy differ calm disposition , cases of unprovoked attacks on humans is unknown . Only one animal charged at the huntsman was killed , but the predator was the fired earlier - at the opening under the skin found buckshot . Working in the reserve, rangers often meet bears in different places and situations. Most often, the animals ran away , but after a few tens of meters stopped looking around , sometimes getting up on his hind legs . 3-4 times , however, people had to retire - the animals exhibited a pronounced dissatisfaction when they were approached by 15 meters when shooting . First, they are alarmed camera clicks , then at that time they were fed grass or hips . In another case, on a steep rocky , very inconvenient to move the slope of the people suddenly found themselves in the way of big game making his way to his pasture. Coming out from behind the rock , bear the first to notice them . He exhaled air and stopped abruptly . Attempts to scare the beast voice were unsuccessful - he showed clear signs of anxiety - hair on the nape reared , threatening attacks but did not. Bear they did not like - it was a great , light -brown, all sort of sloppy , shaggy, with a huge round head and light " collar " around his neck. Huntsmen cautiously retreated , backing up , not showing the beast 's back , but to go as the steep scree down was not that good, but had no choice , the true owner of the gorge stubbornly stood at the edge of a small cliff and watched them look as long as they have not disappeared from his sight.

 

Reproduction of bears occurs in the den . Newborns appear in the winter, they are small, blind and helpless . Only at the end of winter brings young mother at will and begins to train them for independent living. Most often, one female with two cubs , at least - one , three - very rare. Here's how to describe the zoologists Yu Grachev and A. Smirnov behavior of kids , " Bears in the first year of life is very lively and playful - run one after the other , fight , bite, get up on his hind legs and reward one another spanking . On steep slopes and snow they slide down to the legs or stomach, burying his face into the snow . Continuing to climb the mother, especially if the family has one bear, hung it on the sides or biting the ears . Next spring games are less frequent , although they still continue to play with each other and with their mother . Adult animals sometimes frolic in the snow , often in the first few days after waking up from its winter sleep - run at a gallop down the slope, bouncing, turned over on his back, legs waving in the air . "

The number of bears in the Aksu- Dzhabagly is quite high and is held in the last decade, at a constant level . However, cases of destruction, unfortunately, are still observed . In some lean years in the autumn animals come down to the fields, to the villages and almost always become a victim of any hunter.

Very rare in Aksu Dzhabagly snow leopard (ounce ) , a major predator of beautiful cats. Its color is smoky- gray with black spots all over the body , long tail , at least a meter , very agile. Bars reserved and cautious , hunt from ambush, hours podkaraulivaya in secluded places coming down to drink water or grazing ungulates. By mining creeps silently , his movements while indescribably graceful - wavelike meanders like a predator is spread along the slope. Overtaking prey or escaping , making huge leaps .

The famous Soviet writer and naturalist Igor Akimushkin very vividly tells the story of young leopard : In April - June, born in female leopard cubs 2-5 . They swarmed the early days , huddled together on the soft wool, pre- plucked by her mother in her belly and strewn lair (a rare habit for cats !) . At the 6 - 9th day of open eyes in children , the 10th - insecure they crawl without leaving , however, a den . In 2 months out of it, to bask in the sun and play . Meet the mother of the extraction on the doorstep, so to speak, of his house and arguing, pulling each other's pieces of meat . In July and August, leaving his mother to hunt. Winter is coming - young leopard mother does not leave , they usually live together. It is possible that his father joined them ( in zoos , in any case , it takes care of the little ones ) . "

In summer, snow leopards are kept high in the mountains , with the most snow in the winter after the hoofed down to the lower mountain zone . Occasionally may attack pets. In these cases, the shepherds , unfortunately , severely crack down on rare animals. And absolutely nothing - once otpugnuv predator from the herd, they may well provide yourself from repeat visits .

Aksu -Dzhabagly , according to experts , lives no more than 10 pairs of snow leopards .

By dramatically reducing the number of snow leopards has led not only to the direct destruction of man, but also the widespread uptake of mountain areas suitable for their habitat, as well as reducing the number of wild ungulates , their main food. At present, these animals are under the special protection of the territory they inhabit . They are listed in the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature , the Soviet Union and Kazakhstan.

Of other predatory mammals in need of special protection , in Aksu Dzhabagly pretty ordinary stone marten and a small amount - Turkestan lynx . The latter species , which is included now in the Red Book of the USSR , was celebrated on the reserve at the end of the 20s , then was considered extinct . The first reliable trotting meeting in juniper valley Dzhabagly were re- registered only in 1968, since then every year marked by 1-2 individuals . Apparently , the number of the beast everywhere increases.

The ungulates are most numerous in the reserve Siberian ibex . These are herd animals that are well adapted to life in the harsh rocky habitats , in all seasons of the year can be kept in the highlands , making only minor migration along the vertical profile . Even in the harsh snowy winters separate herds of goats often do not leave the alpine zone , hiding in the rocks warmed up for the day from the cold , finding food in areas from which the wind blew the snow . Still, winter and early spring, they are more common in the juniper - meadow- steppe zone of grazing on gravelly slopes , eating young green grasses , eremurusa , tulips.

Goats , like other ungulates , regularly visit the artificial salt licks , most often they can be seen here in the morning and evening hours. Their population in the reserve is high - about 1000-1200 heads and remains almost stable.

Fairly common in the Aksu- Dzhabagly deer, wild boars , deer successfully settles that reacclimatized in 60 years , and now its population has about 50-60 goals.

Of all the species of ungulates greatest concern is the argali - the largest of the wild sheep . All subspecies of it, including the Tien Shan , Kazakhstan has the highest density in the reserve , listed in the Red Book of the USSR and the Kazakh SSR. These large ungulates powerful despite huge mass (adult males weigh more than 150 kilograms ) , are very beautiful , as are light and slender addition , high legs , slender neck with a high head set and a lush fur suspension arms. The horns of males extraordinarily powerful , bent a beautiful spiral, reaching the curve of about 1.5 meters in length and up to half a meter in circumference . Skull with horns old males sometimes weighs at least 20 pounds. The females all body sizes smaller horns thin, short , slightly curved .

Most of the time argali in the reserve are kept in isolation - adult males separate from the females with young. Each flock adheres to certain areas - usually female Kyzolgen areas of the lake , the headwaters of the river Dzhabagly , Tracts Topshak , males - Kaskabulak pit , upper reaches of the rivers Sarkrama , Dzhabagly . The whole area is habitat of this species is limited only by the valley of the river and the adjacent tracts Dzhabagly Aksay , in other places it does not meet the reserve . This is even more restrictions winter pastures , is one of the reasons for the low number of argali even in a conservation area . Part of the population spends the winter in the southern slopes of the ridge Dzhabaglytau , about half goes into hibernation in the Tau , breaking twice a year ( fall and early spring ) busy railway lines and highways .

For some animals this transition ends tragically . Although the hunting of wild rams has long banned, poaching still frequent . That is why , despite the efforts of 60 -year-old guard , the number of argali in recent years is unlikely to exceed 200-300 individuals. However, in the organization of the reserve is inhabited by only a few dozen in the 30s - 60-70 goals. Thus, their role in the reconstruction of argali Reserve fulfilled , but now because of the growing human impact argali population in the reserve is half that , for example, in the 50s , when there were no less than 500 individuals .

Effect is strong competition from domestic sheep : the habitat of wild and domestic sheep are the same . In addition to poaching during migrations and calving occurring in early spring in the lower zones, in areas where it already grazed livestock, affecting refunds cold spring from which infants die arharyata and often emaciated female. Saving the Tien Shan argali , which is the ancestor of valuable breeds of sheep - arharomerinosov , one of the top priorities .

In addition to the overall gain of the regime of the protected area and wintering sites in Tau necessary to implement the proposals of the reserve staff to join the natural boundaries of its territory Kolpysay , Aksai and northern slopes of the Dzhabaglytau . In the 60 years of its existence, Aksu- Dzhabagly strengthened , raised and has rightly become one of the best in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Increased its size , states, improved the material and technical base . Built modern complex administrative and laboratory building with a spacious room of the museum, an assembly hall , a study for scientists .

Achieved considerable success in the protection of the territory , the preservation and restoration of natural systems . Well preserved grasslands . Not a bad herbage yield in almost all types of vegetation , to the same poisonous and uneaten plants account for only 15-20 per cent , while outside the reserve - up to 40-50 percent. In herbage mountain steppes , the role of legumes and fodder plants - oxytrope Talas and aulieatinskogo . Clearly visible natural regeneration of juniper , especially Turkestan , which reproduces not only by seeds, but also vegetatively. Creeping juniper debris and overgrown fescue steppe.

Treelike juniper also clearly progressing as grassland sward , fully conserved at the root, juniper seedlings provides the necessary shade, softens the impact of rapidly changing temperatures and creates a moist environment . Number undergrowth of juniper is an average of 130 , reaching in some places 700 copies per hectare. There is , though very slow , even after the restoration of juniper fires. Recovered and shrubs look good . Within the reserve are preserved riverine riparian forests , virtually disappeared outside its borders. It is possible to maintain reserve regime Dzhabagly full-flowing river , Aksu and Baldabrek providing drinking and irrigation water for much of Shymkent area.

An important role was played by the territory of the commandments in preserving and restoring wildlife of the Western Tien - Shan. The number of argali , ibex , wild boar , bears , deer , long-tailed marmot , who settled on the territory adjacent to a nature reserve . Successfully reacclimatized deer inhabiting earlier in the Talas Alatau, but wiped out by the end of the last century. The reserve is protected by about 20 species of vertebrates and 40 species of plants listed in the Red Data Book of the USSR and Kazakhstan.

 

 
The authors of the text and the drafters A. Ivashchenko , A. Knistaustas .

 

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