More than half a century, continues uninterrupted study of the nature reserve region, is working on an inventory of flora and fauna, the biology of individual species and groups of animals and plants. Eight researchers Reserve headed by the Deputy Director for Science in close contact with the scientists of the Union and National Academies of Sciences are making a huge contribution to the knowledge of the mysteries of nature of the Western Tien - Shan propaganda of environmental protection and nature conservation in the general population .

In evaluating the results of scientific achievements , we can not call individual names of researchers who have made a special contribution to the preservation and study of the nature of the Aksu- Dzhabagly . They were the founders of the glorious traditions . Thanks to their dedication and scientific asceticism was preserved gem of the West Tien Shan, the treasure which has become known not only within Kazakhstan and abroad.

The first scientist Reserve botanist AP Masalskiy worked here for only 5 years . During this time he compiled the first list of vascular plants , described the fruit trees and shrubs , and vegetation of rocks and scree . The scientist noted that some plants are unique and reserve fund for gold of introduction and breeding .

In particular , a wild apple Sievers , forming the most extensive in area woods on the north side of the river canyon Aksu, a remarkable diversity of fruits - from yellow and orange to pink- red and crimson with firm flesh pink and cream shades. Apples its sweet-sour and sweet , very good taste , often with quite a strong spicy scent of rosemary type , ripen at different times - from July to August to October . Valuable qualities are frost - fruit often endure without damage to freeze up to 4 degrees, as well as some forms of resistance against insects - pests and fungal diseases.

On the opposite , the south , the slope of the canyon are the largest in the framework of the Caucasus Nature Reserve groves . Woodlands of this small tree with an unusually strong and hard wood (called so iron wood or stone ) and fine mealy edible berries are very beautifully sparse stand of dark green foliage on a background of huge conglomerate pitches ocher cliffs.

Frame - a very ancient plant, more than 50 million years ago, it was common thickets along the banks of the ancient Tethys Sea . Now , this plant has become a relic .

On conglomerate talus , reaching in some places in the valley gigantic proportions and found a lot of interesting rare and useful plants .

The ancient age has atamanta macrophylla - high herbaceous plant with a mass of tough leathery lobed leaves and small white flowers, gathered in a cyme . Atamanta valuable as a source of essential oils , it is popularly used as a medicine and prevents the deterioration in the heat of dairy products . Aksu -Dzhabagly The northern limit of this species , which is within Kazakhstan found only in the neighboring nature reserve areas Ugamsky range.

All these plants are rare, they are listed in the Red Book of the Kazakh SSR.

Twenty years of dedicated study of flora Aksu Dzhabagly N. X. Karmysheva (1913-1985 gg.) , Who worked here a researcher and director from 1939 to 1959 , and then until the end of his life continued to come here as part of the scientific expedition of the Institute of Botany , Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR . She has published dozens of articles and two books on the flora of the reserve , described several species new to science. But the most favorite object of this indefatigable botanist was archa .

This is amazing for durability wood species forms a unique sparse forests that are preserved only in Kazakhstan in the Aksu- Dzhabagly yes in some places along the river valleys and Sayramsu Saryaygyr .

Arch is rightly called the tree of life. A single hectare of Juniper stands releases per day and 30 pounds of volatile substances - fitontsidov forming around the antimicrobial zone. This amount is enough to " sterilize " the great city . Juniper forests securely fastened mountain slopes , contribute to the accumulation of moisture in the soil , serve as the guardian of avalanches and debris flows . Tree - orderly , long-living tree is a wonderful decoration of the Tien Shan mountains .

Unique juniper at different times of the year. In winter, she enlivens the dark green white silence of the mountains, shrouded in early spring golden fragrant cloud of pollen in late autumn is covered by dense clusters of black with a bluish bloom shishkoyagody .

A lot of in the juniper forest organisms. Spend most of the winter here deer , descended from the summer pastures in search of food and protection from the cold wind . Often there are wild boars, dig over large areas under trees and glades . Everywhere dense juniper crossed paths that go to water , salt licks and grazing mountain goats . In summer, the juniper can meet the family of badgers with funny kids wallow in the grass . In some places settle marmots . Typically, these furry orange animals dig their own burrows under the juniper bushes , and the comfortable , convoluted snags like to rest . The bark and green sprigs of juniper they eat in the spring.

On the bushes , and juniper trees make their nests forest dormouse - amazing animals with fluffy grayish like a squirrel , tail, and bright beady eyes on naughty attractive face .

The fall in the juniper forest can be found shaggy brown bear, collecting shishkoyagody juniper , serve it at this time the main food . And a very nutritious food - in fact gained a bear during this time oil helps it easier to transfer a long hibernation . Juniper berries are eaten by animals , even such as the wolf and the fox .

But the greatest revival give juniper birds . From early spring to late summer forest filled with birds' singing . Almost every tree is a haven for any bird of the family , and in the crown of the largest settle even more . Usually nest in Kazakhstan a few Himalayan tits and finches royal , juniper grosbeak , missel , singers and mountain warblers and many others.

N. X. Karmysheva described the different types of juniper stands, set the stage resumption of juniper in a reserve status . She confirmed the extraordinary sagacity creators reserve - is it possible to save juniper forests full-flowing river Aksu and Dzhabagly providing drinking and irrigation water for much of Shymkent area. With the 50's kept in the museum of the reserve saw cut juniper zeravshan , whose age - 394 years - was established by the annual rings . There are at

the reserve is much more ancient specimens - at the age of 600 years, and in the surrounding mountains are juniper trees , whose age thousands of years.

It is about these champions of longevity researchers wrote KD Muhamedshin and SK Sartbayev that these giants lived in the time of Alexander the Great and Tamerlane haired " gray " , shuddered from the mighty stamping of the hoofs of the Mongol cavalry ... During his long life they felt the impact of extreme temperatures , solar activity variations , the strongest earthquakes , mudslides, avalanches , prolonged severe droughts and repeated cold spells ...

Aksu -Dzhabagly many endemic plants that are found only in this area and in the immediate surrounding area.

This birch Talas - a tall, slender tree with a smooth white bark , long, slender branches and large leaves . One of the most interesting alpine plants are still available in single copies herbaria in the country is amazing lettuce - low perennial with creeping rhizome , black- bluish leaves and violet- pink flowers, gathered in small baskets . Only on the scree Highlands Reserve you can see it is a rare plant listed in the Red Data Book of the USSR and the Kazakh SSR.

Only the pass Ulken Kaindy and scree Kaskabulak found skullcap harp - from dense bluish short pubescence perennial with rounded - rhombic leaflets. The most characteristic feature of this plant is a fan-shaped network of highly prominent veins on the underside of the leaf , which gave the name of the species.

Aksu Dzhabagly can rightly be called the kingdom of tulips. Of the six ancestral species found on the reserve, four species are the ancestors of many cultivated varieties. These species are listed in the Red Data Book of the USSR , Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Tulips in the reserve are widespread , they usually bloom from April to August , giving the unique taste of the mountain landscape .

The most famous tulip Greig . His thick glaucous leaves with dark cherry speckles and large, up to 15 centimeters, the cup-shaped flower, deservedly got this kind of glory , King of tulips . " In April - May, the gravelly slopes of ravines scarlet flames blaze its flowers . Surprising this wild species tulips - up to 20 or more individuals grow in one square meter .

The test is in the culture of tulip Greig successfully passed at the end of the last century , and in 1877 was awarded a first class degree in the Netherlands grade. To date, he is the ancestor of nearly 200 varieties , representing more than 5 percent of the world's industrial mix of tulips.

In the remote headwaters of rivers and Baldabrek Bala Baldabrek were also found overgrown tulip Greig not with the Reds, as usual, but with yellow flowers. In some areas, there is an extraordinary diversity of flowers with different color transitions from red to yellow . Here, almost every individual is different from the other form .

One of the factors contributing to the emergence of such an amazing variety of specific forms , of course, is that the special structure of the soil. Fancy Tulips found in the Giant Mountain fault . Billowing around rocky ridges show a complex geologic history of the area. No wonder these places are not just attracted the attention of mining geological exploratory parties. In seams of collapse formed a thin layer of soil with a lot of chemicals that are likely to cause mutations and in tulips.

Tulip Kaufman found on a moist clayey slopes and meadow areas , in bushes and apple groves. Like the previous view, it was described at the end of the last century Russian botanist E. Regel on specimens grown in St. Petersburg from bulbs collected in the immediate vicinity of the Aksu- Dzhabagly - in the mountains of Tau . When tested in the culture he was very malleable and changeable , so managed to get the color gamut - from red to blue and cherry and violet. In the breeding of this species is highly valued because of early flowering variety and abundance of natural forms. Even in small areas of the reserve is found more than a dozen kinds of variations that differ in size, shape and color of the flower. Particularly spectacular specimens with bright yellow and crimson flowers , able to compete with many cultivated varieties of tulips.

The rich fauna of the reserve is not less attractive to scientists and specialists. A great contribution to the study of vertebrate animals introduced ornithologist L.M.Shulpin .

The study is very rich and diverse fauna of birds continued AF Kovshar , the monograph is "Birds of the Talas Alatau " awarded the Honorary Diploma of the Moscow Society of Naturalists. It contains information on 238 species of birds that live on the reserve .

During the passage and wintering birds can be found here guests from different geographical areas of the country - Red-necked Phalaropes and horned larks from the tundra , taiga waxwings and thrushes Fieldfare , the inhabitants of Kazakh steppe expanses - harriers , desert dwellers - sandgrouse .

Aksu Dzhabagly - one of the few places in Kazakhstan , home to fabulous blue bird , or Turkestan purple thrush . It is "a beautiful , lively and intelligent creature that even with a certain familiarity seems strange and mysterious " - so wrote about her NA Zarudny at the beginning of this century . At the reserve the highest density of nesting great representative of Indian fauna inhabiting the narrow rocky gorges . Surprisingly melodic song of this bird does not leave anyone indifferent. People believe that who saw the blue bird necessarily waiting for luck ...

Aksu -Dzhabagly found another rare bird - a paradise flycatcher . Birdie is very beautiful and graceful - in her bright red color painted and back is long, up to 15 centimeters tail, glossy black crest on its head. Its flight is swift and silent . In the harsh rocky alpine areas stenolaz nests . It is very easy to move the steep cliffs and seems smoky- gray bird, capable of attracting the attention of a unusually long beak , busily surveys the cracks and crevices in search of food . But at the time of the jump for a moment to straighten the wings that flash in the sun carmine red. Smooth undulating flight , brightly painted large rounded wings make stenolaz very much like a bright butterfly.

Aksu -Dzhabagly were made amazing ornithological discoveries in the world - for the first time described the nest, laying and downy chicks Red-winged chechevichnika , the first Soviet Himalayan nests , or ryzhesheynoy , chickadees , etc.

Exhaustively studied the habits and lifestyle of the Tien Shan white-clawed bear, listed in the Red Book of the USSR . It managed to pull off a unique , having a high scientific value of life film about female golden eagle , which has become rare over the place . Aksu - known Dzhabagly five nests of this species. Only here you can easily walk up to the jacks and other rare birds of prey - brown vulture vulture. Only here you can freely watch and thanks to a technique developed one of the first zoologists Reserve PA Yanushko , capitation allowance argali - ungulate listed in the Red Book of the USSR .

The reserve can be found inmate highlands - secretive and cautious of the snow leopard , and throughout the Central Asian rare lynx, and dressed in a long striped shell of the Indian porcupine needles . . . On this small area combines amazing species characteristic of different landscapes of Europe , North Africa, the Near East and Central Asia.

Another world is characterized by a greater diversity of invertebrates , many representatives of which are still not fully understood . A great contribution to the study of insect fauna of the reserve made VV Shevchenko (1913-1984 gg.) , Who has worked here for nearly twenty years and has published many scientific papers , including the monograph " gadflies of Kazakhstan ."

His followers continue to explore the rich world of insects , species composition is in the thousands. Already there are more than 700 species of beetles , 300 species of butterflies and more than 100 species of bugs , etc., described more than 20 species new to science . Of particular interest is the butterfly - a rare alpine sailboats - Apollo ( this view - the only insect reserve , which is included in the Red Data Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature) , aktius , delfius , Mnemosyne , Wiskott jaundice , etc. These species are listed in the Red Data Book of the USSR , as well as well as representatives of other groups - black, with lemon- yellow spots , askalaf , fast golden- green beetle - l fragrant beauty , amazing mantis - bolivars brachypterous , the bee ( bumble bee ) carpenter . At least another 10 species of insects - inhabitants of the reserve are listed as endangered Kazakh SSR.

Most recently described in Aksu Dzhabagly relict species of earthworm found only here - allolobofora snake , which is listed in the Red Data Book of the USSR .

It is difficult to list all the scientists working in the reserve. As a result of their selfless work was published at least 700 scientific papers, 10 monographs, 6 scientific books and pamphlets. Aksu -Dzhabagly had practice hundreds of biology students from various universities in the country , tens of thousands of visitors acquainted with the Museum of Nature Reserve.

Good word you want to remember the people who organized the activity of the reserve in different years - Directors EA Zhirmunskaya , BS Serikbaeva , A. Odintsov , veteran hunter service , true lovers of nature - EI Volodya , T. Burybaeva , AF Reznik , A. Esalieva , VM Zhirueva , M. Sabaeva , ID Kosenko , SD Sklyarov , a senior forester AA Ivanovsky and many, many others.

All these people with all my heart loved the beautiful mountains, wonderful reserve Aksu- edge Dzhabagly . For some, it has become a second home , for others - a school in Mougins life, science and struggle. Many people here know the difficulties of searching, bitter disappointments , joys findings, discoveries and victories. . .

It seems as if about to Aksu Dzhabagly wrote the great Nicholas Roerich , who was able to move on canvas mountain landscape of stark beauty :

. . . Sparkling waterfalls find you . And the keys springs refresh you. And before you heather blossom happiness. But it blooms - on the heights .


The authors of the text and the drafters A. Ivashchenko , A. Knistaustas


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