Ancient Turkestan - the architecture of the medieval architecture


From the city of Shymkent leave across the street Hatyn-Copper Tamerlanovskoye on the highway and the road Shymkent-Samara. Tortkul Drive, turn left to the district center Shaulder Otrar district, where you can visit the unique museum, Otrar view the panorama of the battle, see the archaeological finds of Otrar, Altyn-Tobe and County Farab. At the entrance to the museum - a sculpture of Abu Nasr al-Farabi (850-950 gg.) - Encyclopedic scholar, poet, whose talent shone in Baghdad, Aleppo yards.

Turning to the right of the museum, we drove up to the complex shortly Arstan Bab Mausoleum. Right - new buildings: a hotel, a dining room, a row of shops with souvenirs. To the left of the road - the mausoleum Arstan Bab. It consists of three large rooms and a small kabirhany. In the center - a large entrance hall, to the right - a place of worship, left buried his associates - Hag-Bab, Latin Bab shyrakshy Sherimbet-Ozdere, and in depth for a separate door - kabirhana. Sagan Arstan Baba large sizes. The people are of the opinion that Arstan Bab BBP1 rise up to three meters, athletic build, was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad Sali Alla Galeysalam and teacher of Khoja Ahmed Yassavi. Popular rumor has it that in 1397 on the orders of the Emir Timur began to build a mosque and mausoleum. Construction work did not go: two nights in a row someone invisible was destroying the foundation. On the third night Hazrat had a chief architect and said, "First, build a mausoleum over the grave of my teacher." Builders hastily arrived at this place and built a mausoleum Arstan Bab. Overall dimensions - 35 x 12 meters. Height - 12 meters.

The hotel Arstan Bab always possible to stop, order a lamb. Skilled chefs will prepare you a delicious national dishes: kuyrdak, Bukhtarma besbarmak, rice, Surp. The room for worship and prayers can take to build a praise to Allah. The next morning, after breakfast, we go to Turkestan, on the way to a call in mazar Gauhar Ana. "Schipaly su" means - "The treating water." Ranger is a person, once drawn from Shymkent hospitals, as hopeless, and recovered from the waters of Gauhar Ana. In gratitude, he planted a garden, built houses, helps those who suffer. We collect water from the well, after performing in a room of worship prayer, praising Allah.

We drive to the city of Turkestan. It is even older than we are accustomed to consider it. Turkestan - 1500 years. The ancient name of it - Yasa. Since the XVI century - Turkestan, to the XVIII century was the residence of the Kazakh khans.

The rich historical past of the South Kazakhstan region is reflected in the 260 monuments of architecture from different eras. Among them are prominent place occupied places of worship of Islam in the Middle Ages - mosques, minarets and mausoleums. Of course, the star of the first magnitude - the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassavi in Turkestan, one of the key heritage sites in the Central Asian region. According to experts, this is the culmination of a multifunctional mausoleum in Islamic architecture. Confirmation of this was the inclusion of it in 2003 in the UNESCO list of World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO. The majestic mausoleum overshadow two great names who have left an indelible mark on history - Hodja Ahmet Yassavi and creator of the grand empire of Emir Timur.

A halo of sanctity illuminated life of Ahmed Yassavi.

The grandeur and magnificence of the building, in turn - a visual embodiment of the authority of his personality in the Muslim East.

Was before, and now there is a certain inconsistency in the spelling of his name and, therefore, in the name of the monument: Yasavi - Yassavi Yasevi - Yassevi. Iesevi, Yassaui etc.

Yasi (Yasi) - one of the earliest names of the city of Turkestan. It is believed that "Yasavi" - is nisbas Khoja Ahmed has lived in this city for most of his life.

Popularly known as the holy Azret-Sultan. Therefore, when in 1989 organized bt Museum, the core of which was the mausoleum Yassavi, he was named "The State Historical and Cultural Museum - Reserve" Azret-Sultan. "

It is useful to recall that this is not the only name Yassavi. In Islam, it is believed that Allah has a 1001 (the latter is not pronounced), the Prophet Muhammad -600 names in Khoja Ahmed Yassavi there were 11. More than any other of the Muslim saints, which was considered a great honor. Four of them were cut on a round seal (Mukhur) has been stored in a mausoleum Yasawi:

1. Sultan Khoja Yassavi - Teacher.

2. Khoja Ahmed Kabir - Great.

3. Sheikh Ahmed Ibrahim - Mentor.

4. Sheikh Ahmed Ishaq - Seiyda descendant of Isaac.

According to the literary works of the Yasavi know the following:

1. KulAhmedHodzha-servant of God.

2. Khoja Ahmed Yassavi - Ahmed from Yas.

3. Yassavi Miskin Ahmed - Humble.

4. Ahmed ibn Ibrahim - the son of Ibrahim.

5. Cool Sharaf Ahmed Khoja - noble servant of God.

6. Cool Garib Hodge - Wandering slave.

7. Hazrat Sultan - (host name) Sultan of All Saints.

This information is taken from Eugene Berezikova interesting book "Saints and Madonnas of Turkestan", where one of the chapters is called "Eleven Yassavi holy names."

We brought them out as one of the highest veneration svitedelstv Khoja Ahmed. Its origins are deep and varied. After Ahmet Yassavi acts not only as a religious leader and founder of the direction and yasaviyskogo fraternity in Sufism, the founder of Sufi-Islamic era a number of Turkic peoples. In the pantheon of obscheislamskom it is perhaps the wake of the Prophet Mohammed. In Kazakhstan Yassavi honored one of the first teacher of the Kazakh people. During the life of Khoja Ahmed his holiness, wisdom, benevolence, the abandonment of worldly goods gained national love. The basic idea of teaching Yassavi absorbed the universal and humanistic traits determine what is good in the search path of Truth.

But Hodja Ahmet - not only a philosopher and preacher, he is also a poet. His poems in the collection "Devaney-Hikmat" ("Collection of wise sayings"), written in the mainstream of Sufi poetry, where an appeal to God, love to him, and even the intention to merge with Him through self-improvement - the main topic:

"Your true source - from the Higher moisture drops. Only newly merging with it, you ozhivesh in the good and in the other the right to look down upon as not equal to the string in the mode generally immeasurable."

He was born about 1103 Yassavi in Sairam. His father, Ibrahim ibn Mahmud ibn Ifgihar, descended from Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. Mother Karashash Ana (real name Aisha-Bibi) was the daughter of Sairam scholar Sheikh ares. She was known as an enlightened, pious, wise and beautiful woman. Yassavi preserved parents' graves over which built mausoleums.

In his childhood mentor of Khoja Ahmed was Arystan-Bab, known for his holiness Sheikh, who was considered an associate of Mohammed himself. After his death Yassavi went to Bukhara, where he studied with the famous Sheikh Yusuf Hamadini Hoxha (1049-1140), which is 10,000 times read the Koran, stored in the memory 700 works devoted to the Divine Word, made a pilgrimage 37 times. After completing his studies at Yassavi got Khamadani "Irshad" - a license to teach himself a Sufi "path to the knowledge of the truth" (tariqa). For a while he even led the Bukharan community of Sufis, but then moved to Iasi. Here he died in 1166. Over his grave was erected a small single chamber mausoleum, which immediately became a place of pilgrimage. The remains of it with the tomb of the saint were included in the grand architectural structure, erected 200 years after the death of Yassavi on the orders of the Emir Timur. After the burial there of Khoja Ahmed emerged cult complex. When it lived devotees - followers of Sufism and Yassavi as a whole. Therefore, in recent publications monument was renamed sometimes khanaka (strangely priimny house for dervishes) of Khoja Ahmed Yassavi. But while the term finally got the scientific evidence, and we traditionally call his mausoleum.

Staying in the hotel at the mosque "Ush Aris." Clean yourself up, go to the holy of holies - Aulie. Perform prayers and praise to build. Allah is possible in the underground mosque. It created the conditions for this. We examine the complex outside, admiring the blue ribbed dome of the mausoleum majolica finish.

Built on a single design the monument represents the culmination of the development of multi-dimensional and multi-purpose building of the memorial that combines the functions of the mausoleum, mosque and khanaka. Building width - 46.5 x 62.5 meters, height - 40 meters. It is a symmetric rectangular complex consists of 35 different rooms connected by staircases and corridors. The corridors are divided into 8 independent building blocks of constructive technique, ensuring its earthquake resistance. The main dome diameter of 18.2 meters - is the largest of the surviving brick domes in Central Asia. Portal with arch 40 meters dominates the volume of the building, emphasizing its monumental character. The Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassavi, like every great event in the world of art, has its secrets, many of which have sunk into oblivion. One of them - the same as our ancestors were able to incorporate such a grand idea in a simple stone and clay. Unravel all the mysteries of the mausoleum - the subject of future generations. Our mission is to save the idea of greatness for ourselves and for future generations.

"Waqf of Emir Timur Turagana." The Arabic word "waqf" means a gift for religious purposes, completely detached from the donor, and does not become the property of, received waqf. The will of Timur was fixed by decree stipulating a general plan of construction, basic dimensions, decorative details. The implementation of these plans has been assigned to Mavlyanov Abadulla Sadr. The inscriptions have survived the names of the masters: Haji Hasan of Shiraz, Chenet Abd al-Wahab, Izzed-din. In the first post mugevali with the law of succession was appointed descendant Haji Ahmed Yassavi - MirKozha-shake - a worthy man, in his moral qualities having the right to practice management waqf property. Proclamation of prayers and other duties Imam hut ba been assigned to HazrettDervish Ali. And this right was reserved for his descendants. Staff servicing the mausoleum, called for 2-Curry, who can read the Koran by heart, the water-carrier, cleaner and two gardeners. For the curry, the people who create the dhikr, the poor and the orphans did pea cakes. Twice a week, on Friday and Monday, cooked a special dish - khalim from two to five and two wheat batman batman meat. The solemn words of the late dedicatory letters will make vakufodatelya indestructible: "And those who violate the rights of the Waqf, but suffer the wrath of God." And the signature of Emir Timur Guragana.

We go to the hall KazaIShyk. Blue Dome vnugri decorated with stalactites. It should be noted boiler 1.5 meters high, 2.5 meters in diameter, cast from 7 metals in Atabai master Abdul Aziz Tabriz. In 1935, the boiler has been sent to the Hermitage, was in the store, and in 1989 he returned to his seat. Right - the door leading to the kabirhanu, there jade tombstone, under the ribbed dome, lie the remains of Khazret Ahmet Yassavi. On one side of the door - the text in Arabic - Kalimat arc, on the other - Iklis arc. A horsetail Timur as if guarding the door. Read the memorial prayer dedicated Khazret.

We examine the room Small Aksaray. In a large Aksaray admire the beautiful mihrab, where once during Friday prayers Imam-Khatib stood, loudly proclaiming chanted praise to Allah. We examine the library askhana. We go into the yard, visit the Ethnographic Open-Air Museum and dzhumaamechet XIX century. Finally, we get down to hilvet, inspect the hole into which the age of '61 Hazrat down, took on only water and bread. It was written "Diwan-Hakmet" book "Wisdom". Exploring the names of the Sufi orders, we read in the great hall on the ceiling, "Al-Asma Al-Hdena" - 99 Beautiful Names of Allah. Suitable time of prayer, namaz. After sitting, meditate, go out to the top. We examine the eastern bath - Ham. Returning in a hotel, relax, allot time for the meal. Regular prayers in the mosque execute "Ush Aris." In the morning we go to the next step of our journey.

Ramazanova A.A.


Ladies and gentlemen, Season Travel Kz company organizes a trip to the South Kazakhstan region with visits to ancient cities such as Turkestan and Sairam, Sauran, Otrar and introduce you to the historical and architectural monuments of the Great Silk Road.

Season Travel Kz