The Silk Road has existed since the dawn of time, ie BC. The first written mention of it is in the III. BC. In the annals of China is the record that in the III century BC, Emperor Wu - To send the traveler Prince Chan-Jin, he traveled to the cities - the Central Asian states and made them trade agreement with the definition of the map distances between cities. To perform this work Zhang Jing took 13 years. After that, he made a detailed report to the Emperor. So there was the first written map of cities in Central Asia. And the city-states of Central Asia began trading with China, Byzantium, Rus. The Great Silk Road remembers sweeping raids of the Huns, the sound of horses, Genghis Khan, Tamerlane shelves. Timur not only won, but also to create. After he left a complex of El Rigistan and a number of mosques in Samarkand, Bukhara, we mausoleum in Turkestan - the mosque of Ahmed Yassavi. In this way were flourishing cities with bustling bazaars multilingual, developed a kind of civilization.

Many cities have survived and became the regional cultural centers. Others became strongholds - the objects of archaeological research. People came and settled, formed ethnic groups. Religious denominations replaced each other. And this process continues to this day. Do not abort a live connection to time.


Historical and ethnic essay


In the IV. BC. e. on the territory of Central Asia and the Shymkent region roamed and partially settled and lived Saks massagets (Eastern Scythians). They spoke in Farsi, professed Zoroastrianism (ognepoklonenie). Founder of this religion is the priest Zoroaster (wielding yellow camel), his very name suggests that he comes from the nomadic tribes. In its edge Zoroaster was not understood and lived as an adult in Prince Vishtaspa in Drangiana. Vishtaspa liked his ideas, and he gathered around him like-minded people and they fought for the implementation of the ideas of Zoroaster. He was the first philosopher in the history of mankind, who formulated the concept of progress, as the traffic through the centuries-old struggle between good and evil to the final and irrevocable victory of good.

The first European to find themselves in the community, was Anquetil Depyurron where he thoroughly studied the philosophy of Zarathushtra, having been in the community for about 10 years. Arriving in Paris in 1771, he published the works of Zoroaster with comments, but they did not bring him any glory or recognition, especially because of Voltaire subjected to sharp criticism. Later, in 1883, Friedrich Nietzsche published the book "Thus Spake Zarathustra" (written-off from the works of A. Depyurrona). This work has been a tremendous success and is popular so far (it was on sale in bookstores Shymkent in early 1992), Hitler in his time took a book, Nietzsche even stole the sign of the Swastika, which in Farsi means a good start (su - good, astika - beginning). Thus, the Nazis had compromised the name of Zoroaster.

Alexander the Great burned the book "Avesta" and Zoroastrianism long time nothing was heard.

He is reborn in the III century under the Sassanids, and nowadays almost all countries, there are followers of Zoroaster's ideas (in our country and Tamara Pavel Globa, "Avesta" was CHIMKENT bookstores at the end of 1991).

In the III century BC to Central Asia reached a famous commander A.Makedonsky. Briefly about him: he took the throne from his father, King Philip in 338, and the rules of 15 years to 323 years. For his time, he was a highly educated young men, well-trained soldier. Once in power, he set a few goals:

Alexander attacked the rebellious city of Thebes, destroys it spares neither old nor the children and this demonstrates their strong hand. Vnutrigrecheskie contentions were discontinued.

All over the world and the establishment on earth gamonoi, ie equality of people to reason, to this end attacks on Persia, having a lot of colonies. Persia then ruled by King Darius Kadamon. Upon learning that he was attacked by a young and talented Great, Darius was afraid significant defense is not set and the Macedonian wins over him several victories. Finally, it takes Persipolis and all Persia with the colonies is his possession. In Persepolis few days magnificently celebrates his win and decides to return back to Egypt (now his colony). There he entered the temple priest of Amun, proclaimed son of the sun god Ra, and was given a golden horned helmet. He became known as the two-horned Alexander - Iskander Zulhernay. Then he returned to Persia, and from there goes to Central Asia, on the way captures the valleys of Bactria and goes to Samarkand, which defended the Sughd rock. She then considered impregnable and advocates, entrenched in it, shouting above mocking: "Alexander, you have to have a winged warriors to capture us." But Alexander and his associates climbing attack took Sogdian Rock, using spears as ice axes. Arriving at the summit, the Macedonians found a handful of brave men who brutally cracking down on them, Alexander did not, especially since among them was a girl of extraordinary beauty Roxanne - the daughter of the king of Aksiarta. She is the Great said, "You are not worthy to be my prisoner, you are worthy to be my wife," right there on the hill, got married, and on the territory of Central Asia, he went as a son. He said the city-states, "I took your daughter, I respect your laws, and I will introduce them to the Army, join voluntarily!" After taking Soghdiana other cities - states joined the Macedonian voluntarily. He created on the territory of Central Asian state - a conglomerate of Greco - Bactrian Kingdom, where control was supplied by the Hellenic type, and printed by the Hellenic coin type, but with tamga: in Bactria from the Bactrian, in Sughd - from Sogdian, in Khorezm - from Khorezm. After some time of the Great resting at home in Bactria Roxanne, but by nature he was a man of restless and had a dream to see the edge of the world-known world. His great teacher Aristotle figured out that the edge of the land is for the Ganges, Alexander goes to the invasion of India in order to see the ends of the earth and at the same time to increase the territory of the state. Indians back then engaged on the system of yoga and waged against Great skillful guerrilla war, they could quietly come to the camp and cause significant damage. Exhausted soldiers came to the Ganges: end of the world was not there. All were deeply disappointed and told the Macedonian soldiers: "Alexander us tired of your endless hiking, we want to live in the land of peace and engage in peaceful work." He was forced to submit to their demand, some of the troops he sent by water, some went to the mainland. With that part of that land went up, he went himself, but in a way ill dengue fever and died. A few months later his wife Roxana gave birth to a boy, he was named Alexander, and raised as a prince, but when he was 12 years old, he was murdered by Cassander, were also killed his wife and mother Roxanne Olympics, ie of Macedon nor left no kin. After his death, his Greco-Bactrian kingdom also disintegrated. The Greeks wanted to go to Greece, but were caught in a narrow gorge, turned back, settled and mingled with the local population.

I century AD is characterized by a movement and mixing of tribes from northern China were driven Turkic - speaking Scythians, Uysun, Kangly. They came to Central Asian Scythians, the war between the related tribes were not. They lost territory: Kangly about Khorezm created "Kangui principality." Uysun in the Issyk-Kul region - Uysunskoe principality. These two tribes later became part of the Uzbek and Kazakh ethnic groups. Also in the I century of northern Mongolia were driven Huns, these warlike tribes rushed to Central Asia on their stunted little horse, seized the peoples of Central Asia, formed a state-Ephtalites White Huns. In the III century came here even more ferocious wave of the Huns, led by chief Attila, whose history calls "the piston of God" and not by chance with the Black Sea, he pushed the Germanic tribes, and from the Danube up to the Latins of Rome and to the liberated territory of the state created the Hun - Hungary.

IV century for Central Asia is characterized by the rise of economic, political: it was dishes that are actively traded with the Byzantine Empire and China. In the V century came to the territory of Central Asian Turks, led by Kagan Ishtemi (he Butun-desyatiplemenny), speaking of the two Turkic dialects Yoka and dzhekayuschem and still Turkic peoples who inhabit the CIS, said at the two dialects: Yoka Chuvash, Mari, Turkmens, Tatars, Uzbeks, Uighurs, dzhekayut Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Bashkirs, Khakassia, Altai, Yakuts. The Turks were too warlike, they captured the peoples of Central Asia and formed a powerful Turkic state - West Turkic khanate, ruled before the VIII century. In 708 came to the gate of Samarkand Arab commander Ibn Kuteiba. The first attack of the Arabs has been abandoned, they sent the friars, the dervishes who were sort of counterintelligence of the Arabian state. They gained the confidence of the local tribes, learned the language, customs, habits and attitudes. Arabs through diplomacy and with the help of one tribe taking over another, with the help of this two, the third and the end of the VIII century, all of Central Asia attached to the Arab Caliphate. Then have autonomy, have made the city the capital of Isfidzhap (Sairam) and dominated before the XI century. In those days the Arabs did not just go to such distant campaigns: they carried with them the Muslim religion - Islam. Islam arose in the first half of the VII century in the south-western edge of Asia Minor, it is considered to be the creator of the rich Meccan merchant of powerful family Kureish about him written work "Sirat al-Rasul Allah" (The Life of the messenger of God) philologist ibn Ishaq ibn commissioned by the Caliph Mansour, from which we learn that Muhammad was a sickly boy, impressionable, he loved to talk to Jews, Christians, becoming a young man, created his religion - Islam on the basis of the Jewish and Christian religions, with the inclusion of elements of Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. In Mecca, his first prophet is not recognized, then it is another Abu - Bakr fled to Medina, where he found supporters created the Army and has the force of arms turned in the Meccan Muslims. It was 622 years old, he called the year of Hijrah and is considered the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Muhammad merit is that it is under the auspices of Islam united disparate Arab tribes, has created a powerful state and was the first statesman who established the written diplomatic relations with neighboring states. He wrote about Islam, offered his take voluntarily, unless someone wanted to go to war against them by force of arms and brought them to the Muslims. Islam in Arabic means "submission." The man must be obedient to God, fate, his wife - husband, son, father, etc. The sacred book of the Muslims of Al Quran (reading) consists of 114 suras (chapters, which coincides with other scriptures). The chapter "Yusuf" repeats the legend "O beautiful Joseph" five pillars of Islam:
1. The first commandment in Arabic reads: "La ilaha illa hi Muhammad Rasul Allah" - "God is one and Muhammad is his prophet."

2. The second commandment says that the devout Muslim is obliged to 5 times a day to pray.

3. The third commandment says that the rich devout Muslim is obliged to 1/40 of their income (zakkat) to give to the poor.

4. The fourth commandment says that a devout Muslim in the month of Ramadan is to keep the post Uraza.

5. The fifth commandment says that devout Muslim holy commandments chtivshy has the right to make the Hajj to Mecca. Going to Mecca, the pilgrim should experience spiritual and physical torment. Before the quarantine station Mecca holy springs Hijrah. There pilgrim washes bodily injury - physically cleared, making supplication to Allah - cleansed spiritually. The cleaned so they are included in the blessed Mecca. There, they are introduced to the Kaaba shrine, circumambulation of the Kaaba (the black stone of meteoric origin). Arabs worshiped him, being a heathen, and continue to worship, has become Muslims. Kaaba at this time is a very expensive material is covered with brocade or velvet, which is divided into pieces between the pilgrims. Arriving home, Mullah (Hajj) divides this piece into smaller, sewing up there praying, making amulets and gives those who suffer.

In addition there is a supplement - 15 major principles that a Muslim is obliged to observe:

- To wish for others what you wish for yourself.

- Being the way you look, and look hook for who you are.

- For younger - with love for the elderly - with respect.

- Forgive, be generous, do not look for weaknesses in others.

- Be able to restrain anger.

- Be able to keep the word, keep agreements.

- Stay in the right way.

- To be a trustee.

- Eschew pride and be humble.

- Eschew avarice, greed, and to be generous.

- Be patient in all respects.

- Always be fair.

- Be careful to preserve the material and spiritual purity.

- Be careful in maintaining the health of Allah.

- Provide free time for good deeds.


Ramazanova A.A.


Ladies and gentlemen, Season Travel Kz company organizes a trip to the South Kazakhstan region with visits to ancient cities such as Turkestan and Sairam, Sauran, Otrar and introduce you to the historical and architectural monuments of the Great Silk Road.

Season Travel Kz