Landscape, climate , zoning


For the period of the geological history of the territory of the Western Tien - Shan Mountains has undergone a number of changes . During the period of the Lower Paleozoic ( 570-440 million years ago ) the whole area of the reserve was covered by the sea . By the end of this period, the sea became shallow significantly . In its waters inhabited only algae and bacteria , and from the animal world were numerous various invertebrates - the flint sponges, trilobites , corals, brachiopods ( brachiopods ) . Fossilized remains of these ancient marine animals are found in the sediments of gray limestone throughout the Aksu- Dzhabagly . On a large number of such finds in Kazgurt wrote the famous explorer IV Mushketov , during an expedition in 1908 in the valley of the river Aksu found them Neustruev .

The most massive such deposits in the upper reaches of Bala Baldabrek , where whole rock composed of fossilized shells and colonial corals. Meet here and single " goblet " corals, reminiscent of a hunting horn , up to 15 centimeters long and about 5 centimeters in diameter. According to numerous and surprising finds one of the holes even been called " Coral " .

By the end of the Silurian areas appear sushi, develops an ancient terrestrial vegetation - kalamofity , psilophytes , ferns . At the end of the Devonian - early Carboniferous ( 350-400 million years ago) to several tens of millions of years, the sea covered the land again . After his next retreat established humid and warm climate, which contributed to the development of a lush swamp forest of seed ferns , Ginkgo , Lycopodium . There are the first insects , spiders and > scorpions . Entered a phase of mountain formation . Permian period ( 280-230 million years ago ) differed dry continental climate. There are pine trees , there is a wide variety of reptiles, completes the period of mountain building in the Tien Shan.

At the beginning of the Mesozoic era during the Triassic period ( 230-190 million years ago) in the plant world appear sagovnikovye continues dominance of ferns , horsetails and other ancient groups , the formation of new groups of reptiles, dinosaurs century begins . By the end of this period there is a change of dry to wet climate that dominated much of the Jurassic period ( 190-130 million years ago) .

Plant and animal life that existed at the time, investigated more fully as time on the remains collected in the Aksu- Dzhabagly - in the paleontological sites Aulie and Karabastau . In the Upper Jurassic period, there was a large lake bottom mud is pressed and goes places on the surface as a thin laminated shale , which separates into thin plate -like paper napkins , so shale Tau is sometimes called "paper ."

These sediments are preserved remains of plants - ferns , bennetitov , cycads and various conifers. Scientists have described about 80 different fossil plants .

Richly represented ancient insects - Moscow paleontologists have collected more than 18,000 specimens of insects . But most of all in the shale Tau preserved remains of fish - from juvenile to adult specimens of about 30 centimeters in length. Described 6 new species , a new genus and species of aquatic turtles . In shales Aulie found fossilized bones of large dinosaur skeletons of prey flying lizards - ramforinhov .

At the beginning of the Cretaceous period (130 million years ago) began to emerge angiosperms , which is associated with the development of the evolution of insects and other wildlife groups . This period is marked by a transgression of the sea again retreated to the top of the Paleogene ( 66 million years ago) , when the territory of Central Asia, the low mountains were formed .

In the age of the Paleocene there were the ancestors of the modern flora in the Eocene (58 million years ago) formed in the main core of mountain systems , the Pamir- Alai and Tien Shan were separated by the waters of the Sea of Fergana . The vegetation is dominated by heat-loving tropical and subtropical forms , greatly increased the variety of birds and mammals. By the end of the Oligocene - early Neogene (25 million years ago) is hot and dry climate is gradually replaced by a more continental , and throughout the Neogene (about 20 million years ago) are powerful orogeneticheskie processes in the area of Alpine folding , leading to the formation of the Tien Shan highlands . Basically completed the process of differentiation of flora and fauna.

And finally, in the Quaternary period of the Cenozoic ( 1.8 million years ago) continued active processes of mountain building , there comes a strong alternation of glaciations. Interglacial periods have played a decisive role in the formation of the modern terrain and wealth of flora and fauna. In the era of modernity, or the Holocene (10,000 years ago) , a great impact on the development and distribution of plants and animals by man .

The territory of Aksu- Dzhabagly located in the north -western part of the Talas Alatau and the eastern branch of the Ugam ridge at an altitude of 1100 - 4200 meters above sea level. Mountain ranges stretch from east to west, they are much dissected each other, but have a similar nature of the relief . The northern slopes are generally low , have the form of original terraces, ridges crowned with snow fields and glaciers . South - a steep, dry and rocky in some places from which branch off the sharp limestone ridges that form a complex maze of canyons . In the central part of the reserve allocated powerful glacial ridge Bugulytor .

The main rivers - Dzhabagly , Kishi Aksu , Aksu, Bala Baldabrek and Baldabrek - proceed in a westerly direction. A common feature of the structure of the river valleys is that when they are out of the mountains narrow canyon , and above - dramatically expanded , the bottom is lined them and they take the form of a trough . The origins of these rivers begin in the snowfields and glaciers that feed rivers and .

Within the reserve there are more than 50 small glaciers, the largest of them Bugulytor Shungulduk and have an area of not more than one square kilometer.

The snow line is at an altitude of 3300-3400 meters, but some snow patches on the bottom of deep valleys are much lower. The upper zone of the mountains are relatively poor surface waters , which are usually formed by the melting of snow and ice, and for the most part go into the depths, where legkodreniruyuschuyu filtered through the soil and into the bottom of the mountain slopes form springs and saz . Only in the river basin Dzhabagly in the driest time of the year (July -August) are more than forty springs , the most powerful of which are located in the tract Kaskabulak .

Lake in the water balance of the reserve play a minor role. The largest are the area of 10-15 hectares - Bugulutor and Kuloldy are of glacial origin. Lake Aynakol and Kyzolgen - landslide origin , they are shallow, summer is usually dry . Picturesque small lakes and Kokuyrum Zhasyl .

According to climatic zoning the area of the reserve belongs to the northern part of the mountainous region of subtropical zone , characterized by continental and uneven distribution of rainfall by season - maximum in winter and spring and a minimum - in the summer . According to the annual average temperature of meteorological stations in the nature reserve of plus 7.5 degrees to 5.6 degrees and the foothills in the juniper belt .

The average temperature in the coldest month - January - is minus 6.1 degrees to minus 5.4 degrees. In August and July - from 21 degrees Celsius to 17.2 degrees. The lowest temperature is minus 34 degrees , the highest - plus 37 degrees. The average annual rainfall in the lowlands of 729 and 953 millimeters in the midlands . In winter, 30 percent of the precipitation falls in the spring - about 40 to 10 in the summer , fall a little more - 20 percent.

A peculiar feature of any mountain system is the availability of high-altitude zones, determined by the height above sea level, a peculiar set of plant communities , vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

The territory of Aksu Dzhabagly includes 6 high-altitude zones. The lowermost zone of foothill desert steppes reaches a height of 1,300 meters above sea level and only partially included in the limits of the reserve. Much of the region mastered by man , busy villages , cultivated fields , gardens. On the remaining intact areas dominated by desert and steppe plants : fescue grass , sagebrush , shrubs and grasses ephemeroid . Large mammals are not here, but in winter the wolf , fox, corsac . Well accustomed to this belt -eared hedgehog, great jerboa , Tamarisk gerbil , steppe polecat , reptiles - multi-colored lizard and glass-lizard .

Among the birds are common Larks - prairie , field , mite , biliary bunting , roller nest on cliffs and golden bee-eaters , wood plantations in villages are orioles , shrikes , sparrows, under the roofs of houses settle small doves , starlings , Lane .

Two subsequent belt - low mountain steppes ( 1600 meters) and the juniper - meadow- steppe ( 2,200 meters) - have no clear boundaries and are very similar to each other . In addition to short grass fescue steppe vegetation are very characteristic semi-savanna dominated by wheatgrass piliferous , feruly tonkorassechennoy , prangosa krupnostebelnyh and other grasses, upland mixed grass meadows and woodlands of juniper tree . Large mammals live here roe deer , wild boars, goats , bears, from small - weasels, dormice , stone marten , various kinds of rodents . Very rich in these belts birds. On the steppe and meadow areas under bushes nest partridges and quail , mountain and bile oatmeal , Stonechat , a juniper - blackbirds, thrush , singing and mountain warblers , gray-haired goldfinches , greenfinches , wood pigeons , doves large . In stony placers make their nests colonies of pink starlings .

Subalpine zone, extending to a height of 2,800 meters above sea level, has a more severe climatic conditions and the complete lack of trees. Turkestan is a creeping juniper form bushes honeysuckle, barberry and currants do not exceed a height of 2 meters. Of herbaceous communities is extensive sub-alpine meadows and steppes with a predominance of foxtail and turf grasses and forbs are found in rock geranium , Grechishnikov , Astragalus , Oxytropis , Hieracium.

More characteristic of the belt marmots, argali, ibex , bears, birds of - Red- Nightingale , Black Redstart , pale chanter , juniper grosbeak , common and juniper lentils heater.

The alpine zone extends to the level of perpetual snow at an altitude of 3300-3600 meters above sea level. It is characterized by an almost complete absence of trees and shrubs , except for the low , flattened clumps of juniper , and in some places pillows prickly sainfoin . The climatic conditions are more severe than in the subalpine zone , dominated by cold winds and the diurnal temperature swings .

Herbaceous vegetation is very sparse and consists of fescue , ovsets desert , cobresia , thyme, Potentilla . The alpine meadows around the snowfields dominated buttercups , alpine forget-me-not , Pedicularis Korol'kova , alpine bluegrass , etc.

In the summer months in this belt are succulent feed and shelter from the heat of goats and wild rams , bears, leopards, frequent settlement of marmots , juniper vole . In stony placers occur ermine . Among the birds most noticeable snow cock , commonly inhabited by horned larks, finches Himalayan pearl , red-winged chechevichniki , Alpine and Himalayan dunnock . In the rocks nest stenolaz , Alpine Chough , chough , snow finches .

Harsh and lifeless nival zone . At an altitude of over 3,600 meters - only some of the peaks , majestic craggy peaks are framed by sparkling snow fields and glaciers golubeyuschih languages . Here only occasionally climb leopards yes mountain goats, a hoarse shout announce their presence chough , silently hovering white- bearded vultures yes .

There Aksu Dzhabagly two landscaped complex that do not fit into a coherent system of these high-altitude zones. This river valleys with narrow strips of gallery forest and deciduous river canyon Aksu. The reeds and river channels live blue birds , Dipper , wagtails , Remezy . Visit these places and various hoofed beasts of prey , often live here rodents and forest dormouse .

Aksu River Canyon - a unique gorge stretches 15-18 kilometers at low hills undulating steppe. It reaches a depth of 500 - 600 meters , width is about the same . Naked young conglomerate layers of sediment down to the river bed several steep ledges , separated by flat the veranda and bordered at the foot gray talus .

On the salt marshes of southern terraces , well-warmed slopes, groves visible frame of the Caucasus and deciduous shrubs on the north slope , the larger the apple groves , lush meadows , juniper woodlands . In the canyon , protected from the wind , there is always much warmer than in other places. It grows a lot of rare and relict species of plants - Pskem onions , Sergey Severtsova , rafidofiton Regel , morin Kokand .

In the rocks of the canyon nesting vultures , blue and mottled stone thrushes, nuthatches , buntings Stewart in apple groves - Sparrowhawk and paradise flycatcher .

All of the canyon and the river itself - very majestic and picturesque. In normal times, the river's emerald- blue . When viewed from high above, the river resembles golubeyuschuyu ribbon framed by narrow strips of forests of willows, birches and poplars Talas . During heavy summer flooding Aksu striking power. Here is what the famous Russian soil scientist Neustruev who examined this region in 1908 : "Mad , white marble from sand, water Aksu with the roar of rushing on the bottom of the gorge , and nobody dares to cross them wade , its rapids separated from the shore of the huge boulders conglomerate , about whom crowded waves detained giant stones. The canyon walls , especially where they are most steep, often polished smooth by water , form a column and the bottom of niches and rounded pits , broken water. Color conglomerate - iron- brown and gray. Partly collapses conglomerates form the terraces, on which there is a track , but only in a few places you can go down to the bed and only two places is fragile bridges. . . "

According to one of these bridges reserve staff is still moving on horseback Aksu River .

At the bottom of the canyon is a narrow , sometimes barely noticeable trail leading out to a small , overgrown with grass and bushes the veranda , which is usually set up the tents researchers . Amazing sight is a canyon in the quiet summer moonlit night . Wild and inaccessible seem hundred-meter cliffs of conglomerate , shrouded in enticing soft shadows. Motionless statues frozen ancient juniper trees , resting powerful roots in rock firmament . Does not cease speaking turbulent river .

A sharp cry scare deer, splyushki monotone voice , muffled hooting of an owl at night seem to be voices of ancient prehistoric animals.

On the southern slope of the canyon takes a good horse trail, almost hidden among the thickets of tall grasses . On it you can drive 7-8 miles to the green glades of the tract , , Surovkina apiary .'' The trail winds along the clayey terraces , among parkland juniper groves framework of the Caucasus and hawthorns . On top of her loom large ocher cliffs with many caves. At the bottom of a broken silver ribbon curls river, which places close bizarre gray weathered rock , reminiscent of a variety of animals, fairy tale monsters. For a small stream starts much more wild and inaccessible places . The steep cliffs down to the river a few ledges . The mountain slopes are cut by deep, narrow gorges, forming a small hanging valley - Mynzhylky , Tuezhaylau , Berkutuya . Among the rocky , almost devoid of vegetation ranges these valleys appear bright green spots , which are clearly visible from the southern part of the reserve . From a distance, it appears that these areas are completely inaccessible , so steep and precipitous gorges surrounding them . In fact, from the crest of the pass Kishi Kaindy to tract Mynzhylky is barely noticeable trail, which is visited by a horse. In ancient times, the locals were herded into the valley of horses, where they could graze their own all summer.

Aksu River Canyon impresses with its grandeur at any time of the year . In the winter seem blindingly white slopes of fresh snow . In summer, the hot rock strata pyshut heat, but deep down the river and shady groves of deciduous trees beckon cool . But the most exciting spectacle of the canyon produces during the May storm . With unprecedented speed usually carry over a canyon intricately swirling and constantly changing shape of lead- gray clouds , as if ejected from the crater of the volcano.

Clouds float and float high above the canyon , in the gaps between them sometimes comes the sun that shines on the rocks , a lone tree , the edge of the desert plateau. Upstairs is a raging storm, and at the bottom - the peace and quiet .

The distant rumble of thunder gradually approaching, goes into roaring thunder , the noise of which tremble and shudder rock. Dazzling zigzag lightning break on the stone column canyon. Finally, the first drops of rain fall . The set of streams running down the canyon cliffs .

Suddenly starts pouring rain down on the land streams of muddy water .

Surprisingly varied landscapes of the reserve. There are a lot of valleys , rivers , springs , gorges and natural boundaries , which are unlike each other.

Baldabrek picturesque valley of the river , which forms at the exit of the gorge peculiar narrow gate depth of about 100 meters and a width of not more than 4-5 meters. This place is called Darbaza . On a hot summer day in close gorge formed by a monolithic rocky hulk , always cool freshness of the river . Walking through the narrow path , sandwiched between the river and the rugged cliffs , you can see how in the crevices placed their nest pigeons, swallows the city , and sometimes even blue bird .

On smooth , polished millennia pitches rocky gate formed numerous cracks . Each of them was chosen by a wide variety of plants - bizarrely hanging " upside down " clumps of sagebrush , ephedra , gnarled juniper trees are single . Golden cast flowering derninki grit Arsenyev many blue blossoms Sergius Severtsova supposedly full-time- white glow BOILING spirea bushes hairy .

Rough rocks are gradually lower , expands, and offers a magnificent panorama of verdant alpine meadows Kolzhaylau with occasional islands of juniper trees , the runaway like a rambunctious kids on gentle slopes .

The whole world has opened up the most affordable Dzhabagly River Valley , located in the northern part of the reserve. Her many left-bank tributaries draining thin rivulets from the mountain tops , turn into the lower reaches of nemnogovodnye but wayward river with picturesque valleys. In places rivers break through the barriers of stone formation is sometimes very beautiful waterfalls . The most popular waterfall in the reserve Kishi Kaindy to the viewing platform which displays a short trail , going down a steep scree directly from the road. The bed of the river rapids are clamped tight dark , angular rocks. Falling from a great height multistage cascades, sparkling streams of water rumbling knocked out in the bottom of the stone bed huge round hole. Waterfall is visible from above, it sparkles , sparkles and muffled noise , suddenly springing from soft green haze budding willow and birch trees surrounding the shallow river bed early .

A large impressive waterfall below, when a huge slippery moss -covered boulders come up to the beginning of the foot or to watch a couple of blue birds that have chosen the rocks near the waterfall its nesting place .

On the steep gravelly slope above a waterfall in the summer you can usually see a flowering plant with a poetic name - morin Kokand . Its tall stems are decorated with bright green leaves oblong glossiness and whorled spike inflorescence with many flowers. Their color gradually changing - from pale pink at the time of disclosure to the red or purple . Noteworthy in the valley Dzhabagly two small lakes - Aynakol and Kyzolgenko miles .

In the first lake surprisingly clean and clear water with a temperature even on the hottest days does not rise above 10.8 degrees due to the confluence of the spring-water creek. The depth of the lake is not more than 1.5-2 meters , the bottom is strewn with sharp small stones on the surface of the water buttercup blooms wildly .

Kyzolgenkol much deeper, it is also interesting in form. In the spring , when the pit is completely filled with water, its shape resembles a giant footprint of a human foot . In summer the lake dries hard and is a two miniature little lake , on the banks of which there are traces of numerous wild animals coming to drink at night .

In the upper reaches of the river Ulken Aksu there is another Kokuyrum mountain lake , surrounded on both sides by huge rocky massifs of flat plates. Once upon a time rock fractures, and flooded the river bed . The lower edge of the lake backs chaotic piles of huge , life-size boulders.

Along the water grew luxuriantly currant bushes and honeysuckle . Breaking out of a stone dam , the water gives food to another mountain lake , enclosed in a solid stone bed . Both lakes are difficult to see their unique beauty can only overcome the high pass , moraine and glacier bed Aksay .

Within the reserve are many other amazingly beautiful wilderness areas .


The authors of the text and the drafters A. Ivashchenko , A. Knistaustas.

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