Around the name of the town is a lot of controversy. On the basis of references to Shymkent in various historical sources, scientists interpret the origin of its name in different ways, "garden city", "green city", "city surrounded by turf." Opinion on the connection name with the turf due to the Turkic "Shym" / "Chime" - sod and Iranian "Kent" (Candy Cand) - A town, a settlement. In another interpretation of the name originates from the Sogdian (Iranian) "Cimino-chemen", ie meadow blooming valley, or with the addition of "Kent" - green (blooming) city.


The settlements on the territory of modern Shymkent already existed at the turn of XI-XII centuries. However, there is a hypothesis, and an earlier occurrence of Shymkent, put forward on the basis of the found during archaeological excavations of tombs, according to experts in V-VI centuries. In the extant written sources, for the first time about Shymkent mentioned Persian historian Sharaf al-Din Ali Ya (e) DDA (1425) in his book "Zafar Nama" ("The Book Ratio") in the description of the military campaigns of Timur.

For centuries, Shymkent often subjected to devastating invasions of conquerors. At the beginning of the XIII century by Sairam oasis passed to Maverannahr troops of Genghis Khan, after which it became part of the possessions of the descendants of the conqueror. In the XIV century as a result of successful military operations against the khans Ak-Orda and the Golden Horde Timur turned it into its power. At the beginning of XVI century Shymkent was a part of the Kazakh Khanate, then over the XVII-XVIII centuries, became the target of invasions Dzungarian conquerors. Despite the countless wars and civil strife, adversely affecting the livelihoods of people who Sairam oasis region continued to be a developed agriculture, horticulture and handicrafts.

At the end of the XVIII century and the 1st half of the XIX century in the possession of Shymkent fought Bukhara and Kokand Khanate. In the years 1810-1864 the city was a fortified military camp under the authority of Kokand with a great army and the residence of the governor of Khan. In 1821 Kazakh sultan Tentek-torus led a revolt against the Kokand Khanate. Rebel troops stormed Sairam and Shymkent, but profit from Kokand a large force, which, after several battles put down the rebellion.

In 1864, the city was stormed by Russian troops, and has become an important transit point for connecting the European part of Russia and western Siberia to Central Asia. A small detachment of Chernyaeva captured the fortress of Aulie-Ata, then stormed the Shymkent (in July 1864), which was considered impregnable. The troops entered the fortress on the water supply, through an arched opening in the wall of the fortress, and the garrison was so struck by the sudden appearance of the enemy inside the fence of the city that has not had hardly any resistance. For the capture of Shymkent Tchernyaev was awarded the Order of St. George 3rd degree.

In 1914, in honor of the 50th anniversary of the accession of Kazakhstan to the Russian Empire, the city was named Chernyaeva, but in 1924 the Soviet authorities returned to its former name.

In the 1930s, built in Shymkent lead plant. It accounted for 70% of the total amount of lead produced in the USSR. Commissioned Oil and Fat Plant (SWC), hosiery and mirror factory. In 1932 he established a base of agricultural aviation, laid the foundation for the creation and development of the city airport.

During the Great Patriotic War Shymkent has become one of the cities of the USSR, where he was evacuated to a number of industrial enterprises in the country. From the front line was moved here 17 plants and factories. The city produces spare parts for tanks, shells, metal, lead, optical instruments and other products. Two of the three bullets, hunted to the Nazis, were made from Shymkent lead. Seven chimkenttsev were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

The post-war 50's and 80's were marked by rapid economic growth of the city.

September 8, 1992 transcription Shymkent city name in Russian was changed to Shymkent.

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